Northwest Minnesota Historical Center
Minnesota State University Moorhead

A Guide to the Collections of the
Red River Valley Sugarbeet Growers Association

(Revised December 2002)

Introduction

Historical Sketch

Collection Description

Series 1
Manuscripts

Series 2
Records of the Executive Director's Office, Red River Valley Sugarbeet Growers Association

Series 3
Miscellaneous Publications

Series 4
Photographs

Series 5
Motion Picture Footage

Series 6
Sugarbeet Research

Series 7
Oral History Transcript

Series 8
Labor

Series 9
American Crystal Sugar Company

Series 10
American Crystal Sugar Company: Miscellaneous Research Materials

 

INTRODUCTION

Over the past fifty years, sugarbeet agriculture has become a major part of the economy of the Red River Valley. In terms of persons, the industry is small: the five processing plants for the American Crystal Sugar Company employ large numbers of people only during the annual harvests, and only a little more than 2000 farmers grow the crop for those plants. Further south in the Valley, the Minn-Dak Farmers Cooperative is even smaller, with one plant and far fewer farmers. But the sugarbeet industry exerts an influence much greater than the numbers indicate. The production of sugar from these crops results in the circulation of some one billion dollars in the economies of Minnesota and North Dakota. The cooperatives that own the plants influence agricultural research in both states. The growers in these cooperatives also are voices to be reckoned with in the framing and amending of the nation's farm and commerce legislation.

For all these reasons, the sugarbeet industry in the Red River Valley merits careful study. The materials in this collection have been gathered and preserved for that purpose. The staff of the Northwest Minnesota Historical Center wish to express our gratitude to the Red River Valley Sugarbeet Growers Association and the Minnesota Historical Society for funding support in gathering these materials, especially the oral history transcripts.

Researchers and scholars should also be aware of the existence of other collections concerning the sugarbeet industry. The extensive records of the old American Crystal Sugar Company are preserved at the Minnesota Historical Society. The word "old" is used because American Crystal was incorporated as a joint-stock company and existed as such until 1973, when the Valley growers purchased and reorganized it as a growers cooperative. Thus the old American Crystal provides documentation of the company to 1973. 

A second collection, containing the records of the Research Division of American Crystal, is currently being organized at the Center.  In addition, the historical records of the Minn-Dak Farmers Cooperative also are preserved at the Northwest Minnesota Historical Center. Finally, specific files on sugarbeet agriculture are contained in the papers of several state legislators, also held at the Center.

HISTORICAL SKETCH

From the beginning, sugarbeets entered the Red River Valley of the North because of the initiative of local farmers. When farms were first established in the Valley, in the 1870s and 1880s, some farmers experimented with producing beets for sugar. But without a processing plant anywhere nearby, the crops proved to be unprofitable. Farmers thereupon settled on more traditional crops as their sources of cash income. Wheat and potatoes proved to be particularly profitable. For nearly twenty years the only commercial crops of sugarbeets in the state were those grown by farmers in southern Minnesota and shipped to a small factory in Chaska.

But sugarbeets got a second chance with the coming of the agricultural depression that followed the World War. With wheat and potato prices at an all time low, Red River Valley farmers gave sugarbeets another look. This was especially true up in the farmlands of southwest Polk County. In 1918, a Crookston area farmer named Carl Wigand raised a small plot of beets and sent them to the Chaska factory. The factory managers, employees of the Minnesota Sugar Company, were impressed enough with the quality of the beets to supply Wigand with enough seed to grow five acres during the next season. Within a couple years, other farmers around Crookston and neighboring Fisher were also producing small crops. Prominent among these were members of the Ross, Reitmeier, Beiswenger, and Engel families.

Several farmers, together with businessmen in the Grand Forks-East Grand Forks area were meanwhile attempting to raise money to build a local processing plant. The plant was begun by the Minnesota Sugar Company but was not completed before the American Beet Sugar Company absorbed Minnesota and several other small midwestern sugar operations. American Beet Sugar had extensive holdings and business in the far west, with plants in California and Montana. Consequently, when the processing plant opened in East Grand Forks in 1926, it was the newest property of American Beet Sugar. A few years later, the company took the new name American Crystal Sugar Company.

In recruiting farmers in the Valley to grow sugarbeets, American Crystal tended to seek out those with middle size holdings and award contracts for fairly small units -- 25 to 40 acre contracts were still common in the late 1930s. This was due partly to the limited amounts of beets that the East Grand Forks plant could process before the crop spoiled, and partly to the limited rail cars available to transport the crops. (Some sugarbeets were shipped to the older plant in Chaska, and another small plant in Mason City, Iowa, well into the 1930s.) The labor-intensive methods of growing also dictated small acreages for the individual farmer.

Virtually all planters, cultivators, and harvesters were horse-drawn in the Valley, and sugarbeets required close supervision to thin and weed the plants as they emerged. American Crystal recruited migrant workers for the growers; increasingly, these migrants were Mexican-Americans from the border counties of south Texas.

In 1936, growers in the Crookston-Fisher area took the lead in forming the Red River Valley Sugarbeet Growers Association (the RRVSGA). The RRVSGA was created with the support of American Crystal, because it served as a way for growers throughout the Valley to share information on the industry and the crop. It also had social functions, similar to those of other farmers' groups, and it had an important political function. The Federal government used sugar quotas to regulate the size of the domestic sugar industry, and the RRVSGA could act as a grower's voice in lobbying the Congress to expand domestic sugarbeet acreage.

Other growers organizations, including the Western Sugarbeet Growers Association with its multi-state membership, were formed for essentially the same purposes, but the RRVSGA proved to have the most staying power. It benefited from good leadership, including members of the Ross family and R. T. Adams in the early years, and later such individuals as Hugh Trowbridge, Al Bloomquist, and George Sinner. As the sugarbeet industry grew and changed, especially in mechanization and with advances in chemical use, the RRVSGA grew as well. Its members established procedures for supporting research and began sponsoring annual meetings for sharing new information. American Crystal, in the meantime, had added two more processing plants to its Valley operations.

By the late 1960s, the RRVSGA membership had entered its second generation of growers. In many cases, the younger growers were the sons of early contract holders, and the average acreage of a contract had increased considerably. Motorized cultivators and harvesters had replaced horse-drawn machines and much of the hand labor.  Sugarbeets had become very profitable, and there were many other farmers in the Valley who wanted to obtain a contract. Several small groups were formed for various "acreage expansion" schemes that ranged from attracting another sugar company into the Valley to cooperative ventures for building and operating a new processing plant.

The RRVSGA itself was attempting to negotiate with American Crystal for expansion and modernization of its plants in East Grand Forks, Crookston, and Moorhead. In 1973, after lengthy discussions and a vote of the whole RRVSGA membership, the majority of growers in the Valley formed a cooperative and purchased American Crystal Sugar Company. Reorganized as a growers cooperative operation, the new American Crystal expanded acreage, updated its facilities and added processing plants at Hillsboro and Drayton in North Dakota. The RRVSGA has continued in existence as a separate organization.

For a detailed history of the RRVSGA to 1996, see Terry L. Shoptaugh, Roots of Success: History of the Red River Valley Sugarbeet Growers, published by the Institute for Regional Studies Press in 1997.

COLLECTION DESCRIPTION

The heart of the RRVSGA collection is the transcripts of interviews conducted with several dozen individuals involved in the sugarbeet industry in the Valley. Most of those interviewed are members of the RRVSGA, although former employees of the old American Crystal Company, some migrant laborers, and a few elected officials were also interviewed. Each interview transcription is fully described in the inventory. In addition to the transcript, a tape of the interview is also available.

The collection also consists of documents gathered from members of the RRVSGA concerning the growers' experiences in raising sugarbeets, establishing a growers organization, and building a cooperative for processing sugar. Several small collections of papers, arranged by the names of the donors, concern other growers groups and special aspects of grower business, education, and political activity. All of these are described in detail in the file-level inventory of this Guide.

In addition to the transcripts and papers, the collection contains several hundred feet of film, several thousand photographs, some miscellaneous publications (including a complete set of the American Crystal magazine for growers), and files of news clippings about the sugarbeet industry in the Valley.

All materials in the collection are in excellent condition.

Note:  Prior to the mid-1930s, the proper term for this crop was "sugar beets."  About 1935, the United States Department of Agriculture began using the term "sugarbeets" and the modern  one-word usage became common thereafter. 

For the sake of consistency, the term is rendered in the Guide as "sugarbeets" even though many of the early documents in the collections contain the two-word term. 

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Series 1: Manuscripts

Box 1

Bloomquist, Harvey - Papers (See also interview with Harvey Bloomquist in Series 7.)

File 1 - Correspondence and documents, 1961-1971. Papers of the Red River Valley Sugar Company which was established to build a beet processing plant in the Drayton, North Dakota area.

Canning, R. G - Papers: (See also interview with R.G. Canning in Series 7.)

File 1 - Correspondence and reports, 1960. Includes news clippings on the origins of the Mid-Valley Beet Development Association, and its promotion of the Wild Rice River Watershed District. Also includes correspondence and reports concerning the candidacy of Richard Nixon in the 1960 presidential election.

File 2 - Correspondence and reports, 1961-1968.  Papers of the Mid-Valley Beet Development Association, which attempted to persuade Holly Sugar Corporation to site a processing plant in the Norman County area. Also includes some papers concerning the Western Sugarbeet Growers Association.

Johnson, C. Einar - Papers: (See also interview with C. Einar Johnson in Series 7.)

File 1 - American Crystal Sugar Company Contracts, 1956-1971.

File 2 - American Crystal Sugar Company Purchase Files, 1972.

File 3 - American Crystal Sugar Company Purchase Files, 1972-1974. Correspondence, reports, and records concerning the purchase of American Crystal by members of the RRVSGA.

File 4 - Contracts, Receipts, Labor Records, 1935-1941.

File 5 - Correspondence, 1959-1960.

File 6 - Correspondence, 1961-1968.  Primarily concerns the Western Sugarbeet Growers Association, a multi-state organization for promoting increases in Federal acreage allotments for sugarbeet cultivation. Johnson served as president of the Western Sugarbeet Growers.

File 7 - Federal Farm Bills and Sugar Legislation, 1941-1961.

File 8 - Federal farm Bills and Sugar Legislation, 1961-1968.

File 9 - Migrant Labor Records, 1955-1969.

File 10 - Migrant Labor Records, 1969-1971.

File 11 - Minnesota-Dakota Sugarbeet Development Association, 1941.   Correspondence and newsletters of a brief organization for expanding sugarbeet acreage in the Valley.

File 12 - Miscellaneous Sugarbeet Publications, 1948-1970.  Federal bulletins containing advice on cultivation of sugarbeets.

File 13 - National Beet Growers Association Meetings, 1965-1967.  Annual reports, articles of incorporation, by-laws, and miscellaneous papers of association of sugarbeet cooperatives, formed to "improve the general welfare of sugarbeet growers."

File 14 - Receipt Books, 1940-1941.

File 15 - Red River Valley Sugarbeet Growers Association, undated.

File 16 - Red River Valley Sugarbeet Growers Association, 1961-1966.

File 17 - Red River Valley Sugarbeet Growers Association, 1966-1968.
Articles of Incorporation, by-laws, correspondence and newsletters. Also includes minutes of the Board of Directors meetings.

File 18 - Research Reports and Chemical Information, 1959-1966.  Includes information on weed control, fertilizers, pesticides, and sugarbeet production.

File 19 - Tare Tickets and Delivery Statements.  Tare tickets are receipts for delivery of sugarbeets to piling stations, giving weight and sugar content.

File 20 - Thief River Falls Proposed Refinery, 1960.  Proposal submitted by Thief River Falls organization for a sugarbeet processing plant to be built there.

File 21 - United States Beet Sugar Association, Education Materials, 1960.   Pamphlets designed to promote the quality of sugar refined from beets.

File 22 - United States Beet Sugar Industry Newsletters, 1961.  Published by the Western Beet Sugar Incorporated, a national lobbying organization.

File 23 - Western Sugarbeet Growers Association, undated.

File 24 - Western Sugarbeet Growers Association, 1959-1964.  Correspondence, minutes, testimony and miscellaneous papers of WSGA. Johnson served as president of the organization.

File 25 - Youngquist Study, 1961.  "A Study of Sugarbeet Development Associations in the Red River Valley, U.S.A." prepared by B.E. Youngquist, Superintendent of the Northwest Agricultural Experiment Station, Crookston, Minnesota. Summary of a survey to expand sugarbeet refinery capacity and acreage in the Valley.

Box 2

Peet, Ted - Papers: (See also interview with Ted Peet in Series 7.)

File 1 - Acreage Expansion for Sugarbeets in Red River Valley, Miscellaneous Documents, 1963-1965.  Includes records from the RRVSGA, WSGA, the Mid-Valley Beet Development Association, and the Southern Red River Valley Sugarbeet Development Association, all concerned with expansion of acreage for sugarbeet cultivation. Also includes a statement from Senator Hubert Humphrey in support of expansion.

File 2 - American Crystal Sugar Company, Contracts with Theodore F. Peet, 1960-1966.

File 3 - American Crystal Sugar Company, Correspondence with Growers, 1960-1965.  Form letters to growers concerning growing, harvesting, and payments to sugarbeet crops.

File 4 - American Crystal Sugar Company, Stockholders Information, 1951-1973.   Contains information to stockholders for the American Crystal joint stock company including information on the sale of the company to members of the RRVSGA.

File 5 - Bloomquist, Al, Newsletters to Growers Association, March 20, 1964 - September 8, 1964.  Newsletters sent to members by RRVSGA executive director.

File 6 - Correspondence, Personal, 1947-1966.

File 7 - Government Publications Concerning Sugarbeet Agriculture, 1948-1966.   Federal documents concerning sugarbeet industry in the United States. Also includes a Spanish language pamphlet explaining wage rates for field labor.

File 8 - News Clippings, 1962-1964.  Culled from various local and national newspapers concerning sugarbeet industry.

File 9 - Red River Valley Sugarbeet Growers Association Materials, 1963-1973.   Correspondence, minutes, and newsletters of the RRVSGA.

File 10 - Sugarbeet Publications, 1931-1960.  Federal bulletins containing advice on cultivation of sugarbeets.

File 11 - Western Sugarbeet Growers Association Materials, 1954-1965.  Includes constitution of the WSGA of which Peet was a member.

Red River Valley Cooperative - Papers: (Photocopies of originals, which are still in the procession of Mr. William Robertson, who was secretary of the Red River Valley Cooperative Incorporated. See also interview with William Robertson in Series 7.)

File 1 - Articles of Incorporation, 1972.  The Red River Valley Cooperative was formed in 1972 by farmers in the northern part of the Valley. It existed for three years and financed the construction of a sugarbeet refinery plant in Hillsboro, North Dakota.

File 2 - Co-op Correspondence, 1973-1975.

File 3 - Financial Statements, 1972-1975.

File 4 - Legal Council File, 1975.  The firm of Tenneson, Serkland, Lundberg, and Erickson of Fargo, represented the Cooperative in a merger with American Crystal Sugar Company.

File 5 - Merger with American Crystal Sugar Company, Drafts, 1975.  Drafts of merger agreement and correspondence.

File 6 - Minutes and Meeting Agendas, 1975.

File 7 - Prospectus of Merger with American Crystal Sugar Company, August 1975.

File 8 - Robertson, William, Contract with Red River Valley Co-op and Grower Correspondence, 1972-1974.

Ross, Arthur - Papers:

File 1 - Autobiographical statement, (ca. 1977).  Copy of a 33 page history of the Ross family of Crookston, written by Arthur Ross. The Rosses were among the earliest growers of sugarbeets in the Valley. Ross's history touches upon this.

Ross, Gerhard - Papers: (See also interview with Gerhard Ross in Series 7.)

File 1 - A Short History of and a Few Comments on Sugarbeet Government in the Red River Valley, 1990.  Delivered by Ross to an Annual Meeting of local growers, this speech reviews the origins of the RRVSGA, the acquisition of American Crystal, and the continued need for a growers association.

Sinner, Thomas - Papers: (See also interview with Thomas Sinner in Series 7.)

File 1 - Acquisition and reorganization papers, 1971-1977.  Copies of papers still held by Sinner, regarding the purchase reorganization of American Crystal as a growers cooperative.

Trowbridge, Hugh - Papers: (See also interview with Hugh Trowbridge in Series 7.)

File 1 - Personal Papers, 1935-1967.  Copies of papers still held by the Trowbridge family, largely concerning Trowbridge's activities when he served as RRVSGA president.

Underlee, Carl - Personal statement.

File 1 - Mr. Underlee, a retired grower from Hendrum, Minnesota, wrote a five page reminiscence of his experiences in growing for American Crystal. A copy of this statement is preserved in this file.

Box 3

Youngquist, B. E.: Papers of the International Sugarbeet Growers Institute.
Professor Youngquist, Superintendent of the Northwest Agricultural Experiment Station, Crookston, Minnesota, was the organizer of the Growers Institutes for 25 years. The Institutes, a combination of educational workshops and equipment shows, are partially funded by the RRVSGA. (For further information, see also the interview with Professor Youngquist in the Series 7.)

Files 1-22 - International Sugarbeet Growers Institutes, Organization files, 1963-1989. Each file contains correspondence, announcements, press releases, and miscellaneous records on the organization of one of the annual growers institutes.

File 23 - Miscellaneous historical records, 1940-1954, 1961, 1966, 1970s.  Government publications, privately published pamphlets, and news clippings on the sugarbeet industry in Minnesota and North Dakota. Also contains a 1954 American Crystal annual report to stockholders.

File 24 - Western Sugarbeet Growers Association records, 1948, 1950-1961.  Newsletters, speeches, annual meeting programs, and minutes of multi-state organization.

Files 25-30 - Youngquist notes, 1987-1989.  Notes, drafts, and miscellaneous papers used by Professor Youngquist to prepare the 1989 publication, International Sugarbeet Institute, 1963-1989, published in 1989.

File 31 - Youngquist studies, 1961.  "A Study of Sugar Beet Development Association in the Red River Valley." 

Volume - International Sugarbeet Institute, 1963-1989 (1989).  Historical narrative and reproduced documents concerning the annual growers' gatherings in Crookston, Minnesota, published by B.E. Youngquist, former superintendent of the Northwest Experiment Station.

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Series 2: Records of the Executive Director's Office,
Red River Valley Sugarbeet Growers Association

Box 4

Volumes - American Crystal Sugar Company, annual reports to shareholders, 1973-1992.

Volume - Red River Valley Sugarbeet Growers, minute book, 1954-1960.

Volume - Red River Valley Sugarbeet Growers Association, minute book, 1961-1967

Volume - Western Sugarbeet Growers Association, minute book, 1962-1965

File 1 - American Crystal Sugar Company, piling stations. Map of piling stations, ca. 1990.

File 2 - Federal Legislation: Congressional Hearings, 1948, 1962, 1971.  Summaries of Congressional committee hearings on the extension of sugar quotas. Testimony by some RRVSGA members and their representatives is contained in the documents.

File 3 - Federal Legislation: Major Sugar acts, 1934, 1948, 1962, 1971.  Copies of the Federal laws concerning sugar quotas.

File 4 - Moorhead Factory District Records, 1977-1990.  Copies of treasury records of the Moorhead Factory District, a sub-unit of the RRVSGA.

File 5 - Newsclippings: Concerning American Crystal and Red River Valley Sugarbeet Growers Association, 1958, 1975- .  Culled from local newspapers.

File 6 - Newsclippings: Migrant Workers, 1989- .  Culled from local newspapers.

File 7 - Public relations material, including calendars, concerning domestic sugar industry, 1975- . Pamphlets from various sugar organizations including American Sugar Alliance, the Sugar Association, and the Sugar Information Bureau concerning the national sugar program.

File 8 - Public relations material, concerning American Crystal and RRVSGA.   Pamphlets produced by the Red River Valley Sugarbeet Association and the American Crystal Sugar Company.

File 9-18 - Red River Valley Sugarbeet Growers Association, Newsletters, 1975-.

File 19 - Red River Valley Sugarbeet Growers Association, Miscellaneous.

Artifacts

Box 5

Volume - Crystal-ized Facts About Sugarbeets, 1947-1952.

Volume - Crystal-ized Facts About Sugarbeets, 1952-1957.  Bound copies of magazine published by the old American Crystal Sugar Company.

Volumes - Crystal-ized Facts, 1948-1982.  Separate issues. The magazine was continued under the reorganized American Crystal until 1982.

Volumes - Cristalizer, 1963-1980.  Various issues.  Published by American Crystal Company.

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Series 3: Miscellaneous Publications

Box 6

Volumes - The Sugarbeet Grower, 1963-1974, 1995, 1997.  Incomplete collection of sugarbeet magazine published in Moorhead, Minnesota.

Microfilm reel - "American Crystal Sugar Co., Newspaper Clippings, 1902-1974" (copy from American Crystal Sugar Co. Records, Minnesota Historical Society).

Box 7

Volume - American Crystal Sugar: Its Rebirth as a Cooperative, June, 1975.   Published by the Farm Cooperative Service, USDA, describing the reorganization of American Crystal after its purchase by growers.

Volume - Economic Feasibility of Greater Utilization of Sugar Beets Tops through Dehydration, March 1970.  Published by the Department of Economic Development, City of Moorhead.

Volume - 50 Years in the Valley [1976].  Published by the Public Affairs Department, American Crystal Sugar Company. Describes the construction of the East Grand Forks, Minnesota refinery, and the beginning of sugarbeet growing in the Valley.

Volume - Guide to the Records of the American Crystal Sugar Company, 1985.   Published by the Minnesota Historical Society describing the collection of records of the old American Crystal Sugar Company, 1899-1973.

Volume - The History - Makers - Challenges Met, 1950-1990 (1990).  History of the Minn-Dak Farmers Cooperative, another sugarbeet growers' association located in Wahpeton, North Dakota.

Volume - John B. Sinner Family U.S.A. [undated].  Genealogy of the Sinner family, prominent in sugarbeets in the Casselton, North Dakota area.

Volume - John Ross - Family Genealogy [undated].  The Ross family were among the first growers of sugarbeets in the Red River Valley. Genealogy contains information on first crops.

Volume - The Life and Times of R.T. Adams, by Brian J. Bergs, 1980.  Biography of the first president of RRVSGA.

Volume - Shared Vision, 1993.  Commemorate book of American Crystal's 20th anniversary.

Volume - The Growers: Sugar in the Valley, 1993.  Published by Minnesota State University Moorhead.  A text/photo documentary of sugarbeet growing in the Red River Valley.

Volumes - Miscellaneous sugarbeet publications.

Volume - The Sugar Tramp, 1948, by Dan Gutleben.

Volume - Beet Sugar in the West, 1891-1966.  History of the Utah-Idaho Sugar Company.

Volume - Advances in Sugarbeet Production: Principles and Practices.  1971

Volume - The Co-Operative Century, 1967.  Publication which contains the article "Billion Dollar Business," regarding the Great Western Sugar Company located in Colorado.

Volume - The Silver Wedge: The Sugar Beet in the United States, 1936.

Volume - The Politics of Sugar, 1995.  Explores the sugar industry, its political ties, and the lucrative perks it has won from government.

Volume - The Sugar Beet Magazine "The Root of Success," 1930.

Volume - Beet Sugar Technology, 1982.

Volume - Sugar Facts and Figures, 1948.  Handbook to promote a wider public understanding of the sugar producing industry in the principle areas supplying the United States market.

Volume - The Beet Sugar Story, 1982.

Volume - West Coast Beet Seed Company, 1959.

Volume - Notes on Beet Sugar Technology, 1948.

Volume - Gleanings: University of Minnesota: 100 Years at the Northwest Experiment Station, 1895-1995.

Volume - Fieldmen's Quarterly, 1948-1949.

Volume - The American Beet Sugar Company: Tare Table, undated.

Volume - Economic Contribution of the Sugarbeet Industry to the Economy of North Dakota and Minnesota, 1993.

Volume - A Heritage of Growth: American Crystal Sugar Company and the First Hundred Harvests, 1998.

Volume - Betaseed: The First 20 Years by Duane Melling. 2006

File 1 - "Increasing the Availability of Housing for Migrant Farmworkers," 1994.  Final project by Kathleen Puterbaugh.

Box 8

Volume - Experience with an Amino-n Measuring System Using Fluorescent Detection, 1978.

Volume - Experience with an On-Stream Lactate Measuring System, 1978.

Volume - Rotating Biological Contactor for Waste Water Treatment: A Pilot Study, 1978.

Volume - American Crystal's New Greenhouse Facilities at Moorhead, Minnesota, 1978.

Volume - The Effect of Variable Levels of Sugarbeet Field Scalping on Factory Performance, 1981.

Volume - An Experimental Approach to Study the Feasibility of Membrane Technologies in the Beet Sugar Industry, 1981.

Volume - Utility of Immediate Beet Quality Laboratory Data Access to Increase Agriculture Efficiency, 1981.

Volume - Evaluation of Differential Conductivity Unit to Determine Sugar Loss in Barometric Condenser Water, 1981.

Volume - A Technical Assessment of Forced Ventilation Precool-Deep Freeze Beet Storage Techniques to Reduce Sugar Losses, 1981.

Volume - The Value of Various Tests for Assessing the Vigor of Sugarbeet Seed, 1981.

Volumes - Sugar Beet Storage Experiments, 1967-72.

Upbeet.  Newsletter published by American Crystal Sugar Company.

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Series 4: Photographs

Box 9

Photograph Albums

Volume - Mason City [Iowa] Factory, ca. 1931, 23 pages.

Volume - Chino [California] Factory of the American Beet Sugar Company, 1918, 64 pages.

Volumes - East Grand Forks Factory Construction, 1925-1926, 100 pages.

Box 10

Photograph Album

Volume - Rocky Ford [Colorado] ca. 1910-1920, 62 pages.

Box 11

Photograph Prints and Negatives

File 1 - Beet dumps ca. 1960, 21 prints.

File 2 - Beet fields, no locations specified [undated], 25 color prints, 4 negatives.

File 3 - Beet fields and beet lifting, no location specified, 1963-1964, 39 prints, 62 negatives.

File 4 - Beet fields and beet loading, no location specified, 1963-1964, 48 prints, 58 negatives.

File 5 - Chaska, Minnesota, and Mason City, Iowa, beet fields and tractors, ca. 1960, 6 color prints, 56 black-and-white prints, 50 negatives.

File 6 - Chaska, Minnesota, beet tractors, undated, 16 prints, 21 negatives.

File 7 - Chaska, Minnesota, beet fields, 1958, 17 prints, 28 negatives.

File 7a - Chaska, Minnesota, miscellaneous, 1941-1958, 7 prints, 4 negatives.

File 8 - Clarksburg, California, beet fields and tractors ca. 1960, 15 prints, 16 negatives.

File 8a - Clarksburg, California, miscellaneous, 1942-1955, 14 prints, 11 negatives.

File 9 - Clarksburg, California, tractors, 1954, 2 prints.

File 10 - Clarksburg, California, tractors, 1955, 7 prints, 7 negatives.

File 11 - Clarksburg, California, tractors, 1956, 12 prints, 12 negatives.

File 12 - Clarksburg, California, tractors, 1957, 13 prints, 14 negatives.

File 13 - Cotton cultivation photographs (mostly in Bakersfield, California), undated, 25 prints.

File 14 - Denver, Colorado, Data Processing Division of American Crystal, ca. 1969, 10 color prints, 30 black-and-white prints, 14 negatives.

File 15 - East Grand Forks, Minnesota, beet fields, undated, 53 prints, 22 negatives.

File 16 - East Grand Forks, Minnesota, beet fields, 1955, 11 prints, 12 negatives.

File 17 - East Grand Forks, Minnesota, beet loading, 1958, 6 prints, 14 negatives.

File 18 - East Grand Forks, Minnesota, factory, 1926, 1931, 1975, 12 color prints, 19 black-and-white prints, 2 negatives.

File 19 - East Grand Forks, Minnesota, tractors, undated, 12 prints, 5 negatives.

File 20 - East Grand Forks, Minnesota, tractors, trucks, wagons, ca. 1930, 14 prints.

File 21 - East Grand Forks, Minnesota, tractors, ca. 1950, 14 prints, 10 negatives.

File 22 - East Grand Forks, Minnesota, tractors, 1954, 12 prints, 11 negatives.

File 23 - East Grand Forks, Minnesota, tractors, 1956, 8 prints, 7 negatives.

File 24 - Grand Island, Nebraska, beet fields, undated, 10 prints, 8 negatives.

File 25 - Holly Sugar Company, 1960, 9 prints, 8 negatives.

File 26 - Mason City, Iowa, beet fields, undated, 5 prints, 3 negatives.

File 27 - Mason City, Iowa, beet fields, 1951, 8 prints, 6 negatives.

File 28 - Mason City, Iowa, beet fields, 1952, 24 prints, 24 negatives.

File 29 - Mason City, Iowa, beet fields, 1955-1957, 17 prints, 24 negatives.

File 29a - Mason City, Iowa, miscellaneous, 1942-1962,  24 prints, 20 negatives.

File 30 - Mason City, Iowa, tractors, loaders, 1920s, undated, 18 prints, 16 negatives.

File 31 - Missoula, Montana, beet fields, 1949, 8 prints, 7 negatives.

File 32 - Missoula, Montana, beet fields, 1951, 8 prints, 16 negatives.

File 33 - Missoula, Montana, beet fields, 1953, 18 prints, 18 negatives.

File 34 - Missoula, Montana, beet fields, 1955, 17 prints, 18 negatives.

File 35 - Missoula, Montana, beet fields, 1962-1964, 1 color prints, 14 black-and-white, 20 negatives.

File 36 - Missoula, Montana, beet fields, ca. 1965, 27 prints, 22 negatives.

File 37 - Missoula, Montana, tractors, 1952-1953, 36 prints, 27 negatives.

File 38 - Missoula, Montana, tractors, 1954, 13 prints, 18 negatives.

File 39 - Missoula, Montana, tractors, 1956, 21 prints, 38 negatives.

File 40 - Missoula, Montana, tractors, 1957, 12 prints, 6 negatives.

File 41 - Missoula, Montana, tractors, 1958, 13 prints, 7 negatives.

File 42 - Moorhead, Minnesota, beet fields and tractors, undated, 5 prints, 3 negatives.

File 43 - Moorhead, Minnesota, beet fields and tractors, 1951, 15 prints, 12 negatives.

File 44 - Moorhead, Minnesota, beet fields and tractors, 1952, 16 prints.

File 45 - Moorhead, Minnesota, beet fields and tractors, 1953, 16 prints, 13 negatives.

File 46 - Moorhead, Minnesota, beet fields and tractors, 1956, 30 prints, 37 negatives.

File 47 - Moorhead, Minnesota, beet fields and tractors, 1957, 8 prints, 11 negatives.

File 48 - Moorhead, Minnesota, beet loading, 1954, 3 prints, 4 negatives.

File 49 - Moorhead, Minnesota, beet loading, 1958, 6 prints, 19 negatives.

File 50 - Red River Valley, beet fields, ca. 1960s, 8 color prints, 27 black-and-white prints, 19 negatives.

File 51 - Red River Valley, beet fields and tractors, ca. 1960s, 31 color prints, 126 black-and-white prints, 76 negatives.

File 52 - Red River Valley, beet fields and tractors, ca. 1970, 2 color prints, 11 black-and-white prints, 16 negatives.

File 53 - Red River Valley, beet loading, ca. 1960, 8 slides, 14 color prints, 40 black-and-white, 37 negatives.

File 54 - Red River Valley, tractors, ca. 1932, 1967, 6 prints, 1 negative.

File 55 - Red River Valley Sugar Beet Growers Association, photographs from executive secretary's office, undated, 12 prints.

File 55a - Rocky Ford, Colorado, aerial photographs, 1947-1964, 12 prints, 27 negatives.

File 56 - Rocky Ford, Colorado, beet fields, undated, 30 prints, 37 negatives.

File 57 - Rocky Ford, Colorado, beet fields, 1948, 8 prints, 5 negatives.

File 58 - Rocky Ford, Colorado, beet fields, 1957, 13 prints, 13 negatives.

File 59 - Rocky Ford, Colorado, beet fields, 1958, 9 prints, 12 negatives.

File 60 - Rocky Ford, Colorado, beet fields, ca. 1960, 7 color prints, 15 black-and-white prints, 16 negatives.

File 61 - Rocky Ford, Colorado, beet fields, ca. 1970, 11 color prints, 15 black-and-white, 5 negatives.

File 62 - Rocky Ford, Colorado, beet fields and tractors, ca. 1960, 12 color prints, 64 black-and-white prints, 63 negatives.

File 63 - Rocky Ford, Colorado, beet loading and beet fields, horse-drawn equipment, ca. 1966, undated, 138 prints, 137 negatives.

File 64 - Rocky Ford, Colorado, beet piles, ca. 1960, 3 color prints, 17 black-and-white prints, 10 negatives.

File 64a - Rocky Ford, Colorado, miscellaneous, 1900s, 1928, 1937-1949, 43 prints, 74 negatives.

File 64b - Rocky Ford, Colorado, miscellaneous, 1950-1959, 34 prints, 53 negatives.

File 65 - Rocky Ford, Colorado, tractors, ca. 1960, 8 prints, 9 negatives.

File 66 - Rocky Ford, Colorado, tractors and farm implements, undated, 39 prints, 67 negatives.

File 67 - Rocky Ford, Colorado, tractors and farm implements, 1953, 9 prints, 18 negatives.

File 68 - Southern Minnesota, beet fields, 1960, 221 color prints, 47 black-and-white prints, 32 negatives.

File 69 - Twin Falls, Idaho, test plots, 1937-1940, 18 prints, 2 negatives.

File 70 - Administrative Photographs (Fitzsimons), groundbreaking.

Box 12

Photograph Prints and Negatives

File 1 - Agricultural fairs, parades, and American Crystal floats, 1949-1955, 10 prints, 48 negatives.

File 2 - Aerial views, 1947-1959, 64 prints, 57 negatives.

File 3 - Aerial views, 1960-1965, 29 prints, 34 negatives.

File 4 - Beet dumps, 1944-1960, undated, 50 prints, 37 negatives.

File 5 - Beet fields, 1937-1939, 75 prints, 16 negatives.

File 6 - Beet fields, 1940-1941, 69 prints, 31 negatives.

File 7 - Beet fields, 1942-1943, 25 prints, 18 negatives.

File 8 - Beet fields, 1944-1945, 21 prints, 17 negatives.

File 9 - Beet fields, 1946-1947, 53 prints, 53 negatives.

File 10 - Beet fields, 1948-1949, 33 prints, 39 negatives.

File 11 - Beet fields, 1950-1952, 37 prints, 62 negatives.

File 12 - Beet fields, 1953-1955, 45 prints, 51 negatives.

File 13 - Beet fields, 1956-1957, 45 prints, 46 negatives.

File 14 - Beet fields, 1958, 45 prints, 45 negatives.

File 15 - Beet fields, 1959-1961, 37 prints, 39 negatives.

File 16 - Beet fields, 1962-1964, 14 prints, 34 negatives.

File 17 - Beet fields, 1965-1966, 52 prints, 40 negatives.

File 18 - Beet fields, 1967, 13 prints, 19 negatives.

File 19 - Beet fields, undated, 57 prints, 32 negatives.

File 20 - Beet harvesting, 1937-1964, undated, 84 prints, 116 negatives.

File 21 - Beet planting, 1937-1966, 33 prints, 26 negatives.

File 22 - Beet processing equipment, 1940-1956, undated, 67 prints, 66 negatives.

File 22a - Beet storage, 1918, 1946-1957.

File 23 - Construction, chemical labs, research labs and root cellars, 1942-1963, 35 prints, 39 negatives.

File 24 - Crops, others, 1946-1961, 31 prints, 56 negatives.

File 25 - Geographic sites, 1937-1956, 48 prints, 74 negatives.

File 26 - Livestock, 1943-1963, 57 prints, 57 negatives.

Box 13

Photograph Prints and Negatives

File 1 - Machinery, harvesters, 1937-1960, 70 prints, 69 negatives.

File 2 - Machinery, miscellaneous, 1937-1949, 67 prints, 76 negatives.

File 3 - Machinery, miscellaneous, 1950-1967, undated, 79 prints, 94 negatives.

File 4 - Machinery, planters, 1947-1967, 54 prints, 47 negatives.

File 5 - Machinery, sprayers, 1943-1963, 23 prints, 33 negatives.

File 6 - Miscellaneous, winter scenes, weed control and flood damage, 1939-1949, 24 prints, 27 negatives.

File 7 - Miscellaneous, warehouse and American Crystal truck, 1950-1959, 21 prints, 60 negatives.

File 8 - Miscellaneous, New Years celebration, unloading and factory sketch, 1960-1969, undated, 8 prints, 63 negatives.

File 9 - People, identified, 1938, 1950-1959, 20 prints.

File 10 - People, identified, 1960-1969, undated, 62 prints, 96 negatives.

File 11 - People, unidentified, 1914, 1949-1959, 76 prints, 53 negatives.

File 12 - People, unidentified, 1960-1969, undated, 78 prints, 66 negatives.

File 13 - Research, inbred lines and roots of the "dairy" section, 1937, 31 prints, 10 negatives.

File 14 - Research, inbred lines, seed variations and beet bagging, 1938, 42 prints, 24 negatives.

File 15 - Research, inbred lines, genetic groups and seed characteristics, 1939, 37 prints, 15 negatives.

File 16 - Research, genetic groups and roots, 1940, 20 prints, 16 negatives.

File 17 - Research, USDA plots, root cellar and Skinner line field, 1940, 30 prints, 16 negatives.

File 18 - Research, beet top growth, hybrid roots and typical roots, 1941, undated, 47 prints, 48 negatives.

File 19 - Research, inbred lines, germination and plot harvest, 1942-1943, 28 prints, 8 negatives.

File 20 - Research, genetic field, germinations and insect damage, 1944, 29 prints, 15 negatives.

File 21 - Research, genetic field, ridge removal and root rot, 1945-1946, 28 prints, 36 negatives.

File 22 - Research, planting plots, root comparison and root rot, 1947, 55 prints, 69 negatives.

File 23 - Research, over-watering and beet size comparison, 1948, 17 prints, 23 negatives.

File 24 - Research, bagging beets, spraying and root rot tests, 1949, 16 prints, 25 negatives.

File 25 - Research, lab, beet breeding and planting, 1950, 19 prints, 19 negatives.

File 26 - Research, beet growth and planting variety test, 1951, 22 prints, 41 negatives.

File 27 - Research, beet inspection, bagging and first freeze experiments, 1952, 24 prints, 15 negatives.

File 28 - Research, inbred lines, lab and Nematode nursery, 1953, 7 prints, 18 negatives.

Box 14

Photograph Prints and Negatives

File 1 - Research, inbred lines, research group and Nematode plots, 1954, 77 prints, 53 negatives.

File 2 - Research, inbred lines, planting and harvesting, 1955, 55 prints, 40 negatives.

File 3 - Research, planting, thinning tests and chemical lab, 1956, 86 prints, 85 negatives.

File 4 - Research, cold germination and planting, 1957, 35 prints, 35 negatives.

File 5 - Research, cold germination, monogerm and acid tests, 1958, 42 prints, 33 negatives.

File 6 - Research, monogerm seed, seed shapes and pulp experiment, 1959, 15 prints, 21 negatives.

File 7 - Research, planting, seeds and hail damage, 1960-1963, 27 prints, 22 negatives.

File 8 - Research, bagging, caging groups and packing seeds, 1964-1967, 21 prints, 42 negatives.

File 9 - Research, hybrids, beet seeds and cooling unit, undated, 95 prints, 105 negatives.

File 10 - Research, graphs, growth rates, 1920-1929, 5 prints, 5 negatives.

File 11 - Research, graphs, date of harvest and beet production, 1930-1939, 10 prints, 3 negatives.

File 12 - Research, graphs, planting and depth yields, 1940-1949, 24 prints, 51 negatives.

File 13 - Research, graphs, plant flow charts and genetic results, 1950-1959, 5 prints, 8 negatives.

File 14 - Research, graphs, nitrate, sulphate, and lactate acid tests, 1960-1969, 5 prints, 5 negatives.

File 15 - Research, graphs, flow charts, germination results and beet elements, undated,  45 prints, 11 negatives.

File 16 - Research,  greenhouse, stocklinge, office and plots, 1937-1939, 28 prints, 10 negatives.

File 17 - Research,  greenhouse, inbreeding, soil texture and harvest, 1940-1944, 28 prints, 15 negatives.

File 18 - Research,  greenhouse, construction, seed office and harvest, 1945-1948, 29 prints, 30 negatives.

File 19 - Research,  greenhouse, beet plots and flowers, 1949-1954, 21 prints, 17 negatives.

File 20 - Research,  greenhouse, root rot resistant beets and greenhouse views, 1955-1959, 20 prints, 24 negatives.

File 21 - Research,  greenhouse, germination and greenhouse views, 1960-1966, 13 prints, 13 negatives.

File 22 - Research,  greenhouse, lab and greenhouse views, undated, 23 prints, 17 negatives.

File 23 - Tours, Twin Falls [Idaho], Fort Collins [Colorado], and Scottsbluff [Nebraska], 1938-1964, 54 prints, 71 negatives.

File 24 - Factories, Crookston and East Grand Forks [Minnesota] and Drayton and Hillsboro [North Dakota].

File 25 - Field workers, 1930, 1944-1945.

File 26 - Construction, Mason City [Iowa].

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Series 5: Motion Picture Footage

Boxes 15-16
Synopsis of Old Film on Sugarbeet Agriculture

Most are from the Agriculture Department of American Crystal Sugar Company.  Synopses prepared by Stewart Bass, retired vice-president of Agriculture, American Crystal Sugar Company.

No. 1
    California harvest--early Scott Erchel harvester, Marbeets harvester, rail loading station, International harvester, pictures of large beets at harvest time, scenes of Crystal's Oxnard, California, factory. Finishes with beet seed fields in Hemet, California, area and warehouse where seeds were cleaned.  15 minutes in length.

No. 2
    California San Joaquin Valley and Crystal's Oxnard factory scenes. Field shots of 12 row planters, large field levelers, fertilizer applications, top dressing beets, cultivators, irrigation pumps, bed planting, irrigations, applying Shell DD for nematodes, crop rotation - alfalfa, beans, peppers, beet pulp feeding in feed lots.  15 minutes in length.

No. 3
    Rocky Ford, Colorado area in late '40's. Missouri Days Parade at Fowler, Colorado. Rocky Ford Fair. Livestock at Fair, 4-H Catch a Calf, American Crystal Sugar Sponsors events, watermelon pile at fair, horseracing and scenes of the Crystal Rocky Ford sugarbeet factory. A good clear, color film.  15 minutes in length.

No. 4
    Rocky Ford, Colorado, American Crystal Sugar Company Research Center and research plot scenes. Planting, harvesting, cleaning, irrigation, sample analysis, mother beets - all good research scenes.  10 minutes in length.

No. 5
    American Crystal Sugar Company Rocky Ford, Colorado scenes. Reel in two sections, first section is planters, planting press wheels, counting beet stands, rolling fields, cross cultivating for stand reduction, harvesting, picking table on a International Harvester. Second section is a sugarbeet machinery show in the area showing thinners, tine weeders, harrows, plot and field demonstrations of thinners.  20 minutes in length.

No. 6
    Crystal grower scenes in Rocky Ford, Colorado, Arkansas Valley. Horse drawn plowing, cultivating, planting and mechanical thinners. Some good shots of stoop labor in beets.  10 minutes in length.

No. 7
    Crystal scenes in Rocky Ford, Colorado area. Good shots of first one row International Harvesters, picking table, loaders and trucks. All harvest scenes in the Arkansas Valley.  15 minutes in length.

No. 8
    Full research film on sugarbeet disease - Yellow Vein, Savoy, Cercospera, and other root rot pictures. Film is in bad shape, has a number of splices and breaks.  15 minutes in length.

No. 9
    Various field and harvest scenes in Crystal's Texas and Colorado growing areas. Harvesting research test plots, Lubbock, Texas Experiment Station including a cotton picker in the field, Crystal's Dr. Doxtator as a young researcher with Crystal, scenes of 36 rows, 10 tons per acre, hand topping and loading, beet dump, Rocky Ford factory scenes. A good film, 10 minutes in length.

No. 10
    Crystal's Rocky Ford, Colorado area scenes prior to World War II. Seedbed preparation, 4-row horse drawn planter, manure spreaders, harrows, early International tractors, irrigating, storm damage from hail and rain near Pueblo, Colorado. One of the first Silver pilers with hugger belt being unloaded from rail car. Hand topped beet windrow for lifter pickup. Research plots seed packet preparation. John Deere topper and belt lifter to windrows. Old Ogden piler at Rocky Ford and outside factory scenes. Loading manure at the Rocky Ford feed lot and dairy cattle on the Rocky Ford Crystal farms.  15 minutes in length.

No. 11
    Government produced film by the Office of Price Administration. Produced in the early 1940's for World War II home information on price controls at end of war. Titled "What Happened to Sugar." A good film, 15 minutes in length.

No. 12
    Rocky Ford, Colorado Crystal area general film. Nematode control, fungicide placement of Shell DD, chisel applicators coverage, test strips pictures of the fungicides' control, 6-row planters and fertilizer applicator and best machinery display.  10 minutes in length.

No. 13
    Mostly research information on the beet seed. Sheared seed, different drill plates on planters stands, Planter Jr. drill, greased board seed drill test and finishes the harvest scenes of a one row Marbeet harvester.  10 minutes in length.

No. 14
    A good color film produced by Crystal and Kanway Engineering on the first automated tare lab at Crystal's Chaska, Minnesota factory. Follows a sample from receiving station on through the laboratory to final calculation of tare and sugar read-out-catch sample at receiving station, loading the tare bags, transportation the sample by truck, lab loading dock, placing sample on bag conveyor, in-scale sample entry, topping sample with power machine, transfer buckets, out scale and brie belt system, pulp blenders, reyers solution instrument, filter tables, ticket conveyor, polarimeter station and ticket printer for final answer to tare and sugar.  20 minutes in length.

No. 15
    Scenes of Crystal's Moorhead, Minnesota factory. Loading the lime kiln, cossette belt, sacking sugar into cloth bags and 100 lb. paper bags, 10 lb. bags, sewing bags, centrifugals, pulp presses, mud, trash and rock catchers, evaporators, bagging pulp, pans, control room, lunch room and finishes with the turbine room scenes.  15 minutes in length.

No. 16
    Mixed scenes of Crystal's Moorhead, Minnesota and Rocky Ford, Colorado factories and factory area fields. Field preparation in Moorhead area, 12-row planters, lime kiln, factory laboratory. Switches to outside rail station in Rocky Ford area and the factory and then back to the Moorhead factory and office. Lots of breaks in film and poor quality.  15 minutes in length.

No. 17
    Crystal's Missoula, Montana factory area scenes. Good film. Full sequence from land preparation through harvest with some scenes of factory and receiving stations. 4-H cattle of growers children and pictures of Frank Cleland, Missoula Manager and Chase Oftedahl, Agricultural Superintendent.  20 minutes in length.

No. 18
    A very good film on the research story of breeding and processing of sugarbeet seed, an early history. Field and field plot scenes showing diseases and need for resistance in breeding for disease such as Cercospera (leaf spot). Resistant beets selected from various Crystal factory areas (Rocky Ford, Chaska, Mason City, Grand Island, Missoula, and the Red River Valley). Root storage and analysis, selection planting and flower bagging, plot seed harvest and cleaning, selected plant seed planted, harvested and tested for sugar, tonnage and disease resistance. Seed then replanted for increase (elite), then harvested, threshed and cleaned and sent to Arizona seed growing area for commercial seed field planting and its subsequent harvest, threshing and cleaning. Good scenes from Arizona commercial seed fields. Last is final testing for purity, germination of the cleaned and sized seed ready for the beet grower to plant his fields. This is all sheared, segmented multi-germ seed.  25 minutes in length.

No.19
    A good sugar promotion film, "Sugar - Good Food - Impact of World War II." Very similar to the Office of Price Administration Film (No. 11) promoting sugar and its shortage during and after World War II. It covers sugar uses, growing, planting, thinning, harvesting, storing and processing the beet.  25 minutes in length.

No. 20
    A Crystal produced film on ways to increase production. Land preparation, planting, fertilizing, disease recognition and control, rotation of crops, by-product feeding, storm damaged fields from hail, rain and wind. 18 minutes in length.

No. 21 & 22
    Two duplicated films (also shown as print No's 39 and 65). They are color films with sound. A promotional film entitled "Root of Progress." It is a classic film that was shown hundreds of times through out the industry to all audiences - civic groups, schools, etc.  27 minutes in length.

No. 23
    Another promotional film titled "Sugar U.S.A." It is a color film, many times used for all types of audiences. It is somewhat like the "Root of Progress" film but is a later version of promotion.  28 minutes in length.

No. 24
    Beet Sugar Development Foundation film (by Phil Smith) on low cost machine farming with scenes mostly in Colorado beet fields. A good historic film, 30 minutes in length.

No. 25
    Beet Sugar Development Foundation film No. 2 on low cost machinery farming. A Phil Smith and Harvey Johnson production in color and sound. Very similar to No. 24 but has more California field scenes. Good parts on harvesters.  40 minutes in length.

No. 26
    A California Beet Growers Association and industry film promoting the California sugarbeet growing. It is in sound and color, showing growing, processing and promoting sugar consumption.  25 minutes in length.

No. 27
    A promotional film on the Colorado beet industry by Crystal's D.R. McHaffey and the Pueblo Studios taken in Rocky Ford growing area and factory. Scenes vary from seedbeds to harvest and inside the factory on processing - takes the beets through each step of processing showing equipment at each stage of the processing. It uses written sub-caption to tell the story. It is a good old film in quite good shape.  25 minutes in length.

No. 28
    A government made sound film in Spanish and the same thing again in German. An instructional film produced to help Spanish (Mexican) and German (prisoner of war) hand field labor to understand the background of the beet industry and crop to the needs of thinning the beets and how to do the job of thinning the beets and how to do the job of thinning and hoeing. Each section is 15 minutes in length.

No. 29
    This is a good historic film produced by Crystal for their growers showing "how to" harvest. Scenes are from all Crystal areas but mostly the California harvests. Covers the days of hand topping, power lift into windrows, homemade loaders, hand labor topping, numerous types of loaders, to truck from windrows beets, and some real innovations in pieces of loading equipment. Shots of first mechanical toppers (power driven disc knives). Early International one-row harvesters (Marbeet) in single wheel and in double wheel in Clarksburg, California Crystal factory area. Early homemade harvester. Early Silver piler. Finishes with pictures of Crystal factories at Clarksburg, California; Missoula, Montana; East Grand Forks, Minnesota; Grand Island, Nebraska; Chaska, Minnesota; Mason City, Iowa; and Rocky Ford, Colorado. 20 minutes in length.

No. 30
    A "how to" film produced by Crystal on beets from seedbed preparation through "lay-by." Has written captions for each step - planters (John Deere 66), stand counts, cultivation, pipe attachment for irrigating furrows, plastic tubes for irrigating, cross blocking (a lot of different cut types). Planting of sheared seed at 8 1/4 lb. to the acre. Cotton chopper thinners in beets (Dixie). Good part of film is on cross cultivating procedures and variations. Scenes mostly in Colorado and the Red River Valley. 18 minutes in length.

No. 31
    A "how to" Crystal produced film in Crystal's Grand Island, Nebraska factory area. Seedbed preparation through harvest in the 1940's. There is some horse drawn equipment shown. 15 minutes in length.

No. 32
    Mixed scenes (a few portions in sound) of mostly Crystal's California, Colorado and Montana growing areas. Shows tractors pull sled for the Mexican National workers to ride on while thinning crop, 2 horse drawn 4-row planters, hand topping, making beets windrow with drag sled, loader picking up windrow beets that were hand topped and putting them into truck (spike wheel pick up on the loader). A King Wyse loader, hand topped by Mexican National workers. A two horse drawn planter and more hand thinners. It finishes with a shot of Old Faithful in Yellowstone National Park and watermelon eating at the Rocky Ford Fair. 10 minutes in length.

No. 33
    "A Historical Review of Sugarbeet Growing in the Red River Valley." A video tape (VHS), produced in 1986 by the Red River Valley Sugarbeet Growers Association. Consisting of early film and still photographs, with narration, the video provides an overview of sugarbeet growing in the Valley, including the first farms to grow the crop, the establishment of processing plants by American Crystal Sugar Company, the development of beet equipment, the increased use of chemicals, and the use of migrant labor. The video summarizes the creation of the Growers Association and its eventual purchase of American Crystal.  35 minutes in length.

No. 34
    Scores of migrant laborers in Moorhead, Minnesota are captured in film footage preserved on video tape (VHS). The film was shot in 1976 by students at Moorhead State University, for a planned documentary that was never completed. The silent film includes scenes of migrants working in the beet fields near Moorhead, migrants applying for social services at Clay County offices, migrant children attending the summer school program at Moorhead's Edison School, and miscellaneous scenes of migrant families. Apparently, further filming and a script narration to accompany the film were never completed.  10 minutes in length.

No. 35
    Scenes from the growing season of beets in approximately 1952.  Shows seeding of sugarbeets, the mature sugarbeets, and then the harvesting of sugarbeets.  A colored film, 5 minutes in length.

No. 36
    A film showing fall harvest around 1952.  It includes digging of sugarbeets, placing them in trucks, and dumping for storage or transportation.  A colored film, 5 minutes in length.

No. 37
    "Farming in Western Nebraska: 1938-1945."  Glen and Leo Kellett.  Video produced by Farm and Ranch Museum.

No. 38
    A video about sugarbeet farming.
    
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Series 6: Sugarbeet Research

Box 17

Sugarbeet Research and Extension Reports. Published yearly by North Dakota State University and the University of Minnesota, Crookston, based on research by staff members at NDSU, UMC, American Crystal Sugar Company and the United States Department of Agriculture.

Volume - 1970 report.  14 pages, with reports by Olaf Soine, Alan Dexter, Ron Torkelson, John Moraghan, Gerald Smith, and Armand Bauer. Reports included information on weed control; sugarbeet transplanting; nitrogen fertilizer; and irrigation.

Volume - 1971 report.  90 pages, 20 reports by 12 researchers. Topics include root maggot control; storage decay; soil management; weed control; rotation studies; and hybrid seed.

Volume - 1972 report.  83 pages, 16 reports, by 18 researchers. Topics include grower returns; pesticide usage; seedbed preparation; a projection of increased acreage production; and a summary of the American Crystal Sugar Company research program.

Volume - 1973 report. 126 pages, 19 reports, by 22 researchers. Topics include sugarbeet diseases; root maggot; irrigation; crop rotation; planting methods; temperature conditions in storage piles; pesticides and mechanical thinners; and comparison of tonnage versus sugar content.

Volume - 1974 report.  161 pages, 19 reports, by 23 researchers. Topics include sugarbeet varieties and disease resistance; weed control; soil fertility; plant spacing studies; root maggot and insects; and storage experiments.

Volume - 1975 report.  122 pages, 14 reports, by 21 researchers. Topics include USDA research on storage; soil tests; rotation studies; insects and root maggot; and mildew problems.

Volume - 1976 report.  202 pages, 32 reports. Topics include wild oats; postemergence herbicides; estimated production costs; row spacing comparisons; tare lab reports; insects and root maggot; forced air ventilation of storage piles; soil tests; and fertilizers.

Volume - 1977 report.  190 pages, 33 reports. Topics include weed control; herbicide use; wild oats; equipment selection; planting to stand; potassium deficiency; insect control; sugar content; and 7 submissions to the grower idea contest.

Volume - 1978 report.  269 pages, 45 reports. Topics include betanex; weed control; multiple seedlings; soil temperature; water table depth; potassium fertilizer; insect control; storage experiments; and 5 submissions to the grower idea contest.

Volume - 1979 report.  251 pages, 44 reports. Topics include pigweed; betanex, weed control; soil management; seedbed preparation; insect control; production costs; deep freeze storage; and 5 submissions to the grower idea contest.

Volume - 1980 report.  215 pages, 40 reports. Topics include herbicide; pigweed and betanex; reduced tillage production; storage pile monitoring; machinery cost; eptem usage; and 8 submissions to the grower idea contest.

Volume - 1981 report.  254 pages, 43 reports. Topics include weed control and herbicide comparisons; nitrogen fertilizers; root maggot; fungicides; cercospora leaf spot; machinery costs; and 8 submissions to the grower idea contest.

Volume - 1982 report.  327 pages, 46 reports. Topics include Antor and Ethofumesate use in weed control; soil comparisons; root maggot; freezing of sugarbeets to prevent storage loss; fungicide and cercospora; a comparison of production costs in southern Minnesota and the Red River Valley; and 8 submissions to the grower idea contest.

Volume - 1983 report.  310 pages, 45 reports. Topics include controlling cochia, wild oats and pigweed; studies of Poast, Fusilade, Eptam, Ro-Neet, Batanex, and Lorsban for weed control; potassium fertilizers; frost damage of sugarbeets; cercospora leaf spot studies; seed comparisons; wind erosion; sugarbeet production cost in Red River Valley and southern Minnesota; and 8 submissions to the grower idea contest.

Volume - 1984 report.  283 pages, 49 reports. Topics include Poast and Betanex comparisons; quackgrass control; use of Anhydrous Ammonia; nitrogen studies; root maggot; cercospora control; an evaluation of planters; transplanting of sugarbeets; and 15 submissions to the grower idea contest.

Volume - 1985 report.  306 pages, 51 reports. Topics include studies of Poast, Batanex, Eptam, Genep and Eradicane in weed control; root maggot; comparison of sugarbeet costs for American Crystal, Minn-Dak, and Southern Minnesota Growers cooperatives; and 16 submissions to the grower idea contest.

Volume - 1986 report.  285 pages, 58 reports. Topics include studies of Poast, Fusilade 2000, and Dual in weed control; application of sulfur in the soil; insecticide use survey; root rot; mildew problems; transplanting to increase yields; and 22 submissions to the grower idea contest.

Volume - 1987 report.  268 pages, 51 reports. Topics include sugarbeet-soybean rotation; combined use of Betanex, Betamix, Poast, and Fusilade 2000 in weed control; sugarbeet production in China; seed variety studies; and 19 submissions to the grower idea contest.

Volume - 1988 report.  292 pages, 63 reports. Topics include a guide to weed control; sugarbeet-soybean-navy beans rotations; herbicide carryover problems; applications of Betamix, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur applications in soil; evaluation of the John Deere Maxemerge 2 planter; root rot diseases; Rhizoctonia root rot; and 19 submissions to the grower idea contest.

Volume - 1989 report.  247 pages, 45 reports. Topics include a survey of herbicide use in eastern North Dakota and Minnesota compared to western North Dakota and eastern Montana; zinc application to the soil; a survey of insecticide use in North Dakota-Minnesota compared to Montana-North Dakota; Rhizoctonia root rot; uniform versus variable plant spacing; and 13 submissions to the grower idea contest.

Volume - 1990 report.  292 pages, 59 reports. Topics include weed control through use of Betamix and Stinger, Boron and Triggrr fertilizers; root maggot; planting to stand in the Yellowstone Valley, Montana; sugarbeet production in Manitoba, Canada; and 21 submissions to the grower idea contest.

Volume - 1991 report.  300 pages, 62 reports. Topics include herbicide carryover problems; fertilizer tests in Manitoba, Canada; the American Crystal root maggot survey; a survey of fungicide use in eastern North Dakota-Minnesota compared to Montana-western North Dakota; Rhizoctonia root rot in sugarbeets and potatoes; comparison of harvesters; and 28 submissions to the grower idea contest.

Volume - 1992 report.  284 pages, 47 reports.  Topics include weed control surveys; insecticide use surveys; rhizomania disease; cercespora leaf spot; use of nitrogen fertilizer; a study of plant population and crop yield; and 12 submissions to the grower idea contest.

Volume - 1993 report.  380 pages, 36 reports.  Topics include weed control; plant pathology; entomology; storage; soil management practices, production practices; and 37 submissions to the grower idea contest.  Also contains an index for reports from previous years.

Volume - 1994 report.  300 pages, 36 reports.  Topics include weed control; plant pathology; entomology; soil management, production practices; sugarbeet varieties and testing; and 13 submissions to the grower idea contest.

Volume - 1995 report.  342 pages, 47 reports.  Topics include weed control; soil management; plant pathology; production practices/economics; entomology; sugarbeet varieties/quality testing; and 5 submissions to the grower idea contest.

Volume - 1996 report.  346 pages, 43 reports.  Topics include weed control; soil management;  production practices/economics; entomology; plant pathology; sugarbeet varieties/quality testing; and 12 submissions to the grower idea contest.

Box 18

Volume - 1997 report.  411 pages, 52 reports.  Topics include weed control; soil management;  production practices/economics; entomology; plant pathology; sugarbeet varieties/quality testing; and 11 submissions to the grower idea contest.

Volume - 1998 report.  351 pages, 44 reports.  Topics include weed control; soil management;  production practices/economics; entomology; plant pathology; sugarbeet varieties/quality testing; and 8 submissions to the grower idea contest.

Volume - 1999 report.  348 pages, 47 reports.  Topics include weed control; soil management; sugarbeet physiology/production practices/economics; entomology; plant pathology; sugarbeet varieties/quality testing; web page; and 14 submissions to the grower idea contest.

Volume - 2000 report.  345 pages, 45 reports.  Topics include weed control; soil management; sugarbeet physiology/production/economics; entomology; plant pathology; sugarbeet varieties/quality testing; and 13 submissions to the grower idea contest.

Volume - 2001 report.  380 pages, 51 reports.  Topics include weed control; soil management; sugarbeet physiology/production/economics; entomology; plant pathology; sugarbeet varieties/quality testing; and 10 submissions to the grower idea contest.

Volume - 2004b report.  317 pages, 43 reports.  Topics include weed control; soil management; sugarbeet physiology/production/economics; entomology; plant pathology; and sugarbeet varieties/quality testing.

Volume - 2005 report.  388 pages, 53 reports.  Topics include weed control; soil management; sugarbeet physiology/production/economics; entomology; plant pathology; and sugarbeet varieties/quality testing.

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Series 7: Oral History Transcripts
(arranged alphabetically by interviewee(s).)

Box 19

Allen, Merle [1990, 43 pages]
    Mr. Allen has been growing sugarbeets near Glyndon, Minnesota, since 1934. He served on the RRVSGA Board of Directors for 16 years and was head of the Clay County growers organization for several years. Mr. Allen discusses in detail the introduction of machinery in the cultivation and harvesting of sugarbeets.

Anderson, Herb [1990, 38 pages]
    Mr. Anderson's family have been growing sugarbeets near Hillsboro, North Dakota, since 1950. Mr. Anderson served several terms on the RRVSGA Board of Directors and was on the board when the growers purchased the American Crystal Sugar Company. He then served on the new Board of Directors of the reorganized American Crystal. Mr. Anderson discusses in detail the purchase of American Crystal, its reorganization as a cooperative, and the success of sugarbeets as a crop in the Red River Valley.

Aronson, Maurice [1989, 19 pages]
    Mr. Aronson and his father began growing sugarbeets for American Crystal in 1949, on their farm near Halstad, Minnesota. Mr. Aronson served on the Board of Directors of the RRVSGA. He discusses the introduction and development of mechanical equipment for sugarbeets. He also discusses his work in support of federal legislation for the domestic sugar industry.

Bass, Stewart [1989, 39 pages]
    Mr. Bass discusses his career, which began in 1954, as a field man for American Crystal. He became the assistant to the vice-president to agriculture in 1959. He edited the company's magazine, Crystal-ized Facts, until it was discontinued in 1982. In 1973, he became the vice-president for agriculture and under the reorganized company, developed the new system for the delivery of beets to the factories. He also discusses his work for the preservation of records and information dealing with the history of sugarbeet growing.  A second interview regarding migrant labor was conducted by Jim Norris in 2000.

Bass, Stewart [2000, 18 pages]
    Mr. Bass discusses American Crystal's use of migrant labor in this interview, which was conducted by Jim Norris.

Beiswenger, Lloyd [1990, 32 pages]
    Mr. Beiswenger's family began growing sugarbeets in the 1920s. Mr. Beiswenger discusses his experiences in growing sugarbeets on his farm near Fisher, Minnesota. He discusses the migrant labor he employed through the years and the profitability of sugarbeets compared to other crops.

Benedict, Patrick [1990, 41 pages]
    Mr. Benedict's father, Edwin, began growing sugarbeets for American Crystal in the 1930s, and Patrick began growing in 1951. He discusses, in detail, all aspects of cultivating the crop, including fertilizer use, equipment, migrant labor, and delivery of the crop. He also discusses his activities on the Board of Directors of the RRVSGA, and the purchase of American Crystal by the growers.

Bernhardson, Eddie [1991, 34 pages]
    Mr. Bernhardson's father, Elvin Bernhardson, began growing sugarbeets for American Crystal in 1926. Eddie helped his father grow sugarbeets in the 1930s and remembers working with horse-drawn equipment. He discusses the early methods of cultivation, harvesting, and crop delivery. His brother later grew sugarbeets for the Red River Valley Cooperative, as well as American Crystal. He also discusses his later career as a county agent, during which he worked with many sugarbeet growers in the Red River Valley. Mr. Bernhardson concludes his interview with a discussion of modern sugarbeet technology.

Bloomquist, Al [1990, 1992, 92 pages each]
    James Fogarty of the Minnesota Historical Society, conducted two interviews with Mr. Bloomquist.  In these, Mr. Bloomquist reflects on his work with the Red River Valley Sugarbeet Growers Association, including their purchase of American Crystal in the 1970s.  The final copies of the interviews are at the Minnesota Historical Society, with drafts being held at NMHC.

Bloomquist, Harvey [1993, 31 pages]
   
Mr. Bloomquist discusses the movement among farmers and businessmen in the Drayton, North Dakota area in the early 1960s to build a sugarbeet processing plant.  He describes the establishment of the Red River Valley Sugar Company for this purpose and the eventual merger of the movement with the American Crystal operation. 

Brekken, Wilburn [1989, 21 pages]
    Mr. Brekken's father began growing sugarbeets for American Crystal in 1934. Mr. Brekken discusses his experiences in growing on his Crookston, Minnesota, area farm since 1943. He also discusses his activities as a member of the RRVSGA Board of Directors from 1965 to 1986, including four years as its chairman. He discusses the purchase of American Crystal and his work as the first chairman of the board of the reorganized company.

Canning, R. G. [1990, 32 pages]
    A farmer since 1930, Mr. Canning (1912-1999) began growing sugarbeets in 1961. He organized and was president of the Mid-Valley Beet Development Association, a group of farmers who were interested in expanding sugarbeet acreage in Traill County, North Dakota, and Norman County, Minnesota. In addition to discussing this organization, he describes his experiences in growing sugarbeets and in lobbying for flood control and domestic sugar legislation.

Castillo, Beatriz [1993, 41 pages]
    Born in Mexico, Ms. Castillo and her family immigrated to the United States and settled in Texas. In her interview, Ms. Castillo relates her experiences in adjusting to life in the United States. She discusses her education and her work in a variety of occupations, including fieldwork as a migrant laborer in Minnesota and elsewhere. Currently a teacher in Moorhead, Minnesota, she discusses the difficulties that former migrants face when settling in a new area.

Dexter, Alan [1992, 42 pages]
    Mr. Dexter, coordinator of research at North Dakota State University's sugarbeet research program, discusses his work. He relates the types of research involved in sugarbeet agriculture, including the testing of various chemicals, the comparison of soil and seed varieties, and the various weeds and pests that threaten the crop. He describes the funding for the research program and its relationship to the RRVSGA research and education program. He also describes the annual publication of the Sugarbeet Research and Extension Reports, the annual growers institutes, and the growers ideas contests that have led to new ideas in cultivation and harvesting. He concludes with a discussion of the importance of sugarbeets to the economy of the Red River Valley.

Dosland, William [1991, 53 pages]
    Mr. Dosland (1927-1993), a Moorhead, Minnesota lawyer, also served in the Minnesota state senate from 1959-1973. Retained as the legal counsel in the 1960s by the RRVSGA, he advised them on contract negotiations with the American Crystal Sugar Company. He discusses in considerable detail the financial and legal steps involved in the purchase of American Crystal by the growers. He also describes in detail the reorganization of American Crystal as a growers' cooperative.

Engel, Meta and Esther [1990, 42 pages]
    The Engel sisters are daughters of Carl Engel, one of the earliest growers of sugarbeets in the Red River Valley. In their interview, they discuss in detail the early sugarbeet cultivation in the Fisher/ Crookston, Minnesota, area. They comment on the important role played by their uncle, Ferdinand Ross, in the growth of the sugarbeet industry.

Fiandaca, John [1990, 27 pages]
    John Fiandaca and his father, Angelo, began growing sugarbeets in the 1930s with a twelve acre contract from American Crystal. In his interview, Mr. Fiandaca discusses the growth of his sugarbeet farming, the techniques he employs to grow sugarbeets, and the success of sugarbeets compared to other crops. He also discusses the relationships between growers and the American Crystal Company, the employment of migrant labor, and the significance of the industry to the Valley's economy.

Finstad, Ole and Mary [1987, 27 pages]
    Ole (1896-1987) and Mary (1900-1997) Finstad discuss their experiences in growing sugarbeets on their farm near Georgetown, Minnesota. Mr. Finstad  began growing sugarbeets in 1926 and continued until his retirement. He reflects on the transition from animal power to machinery in farming and the importance of sugarbeets to his personal success.

Forbes, Frank [1990, 34 pages)]
    Mr. Forbes was an agriculture extension agent from Marshall County, Minnesota in the 1940s, and supervisor for Agricultural Extension at the University of Minnesota in the 1950s. He discusses his experiences in working with growers of sugarbeets in the Marshall County area. He comments on the importance of the railroads for delivery in the early years of sugarbeets, the early techniques for successful cultivation, the recruiting of migrant labor, and the introduction of equipment. He also discusses how sugarbeets altered the agriculture of the Valley.

Grant, Donald [1989, 22 pages]
    Mr. Grant, a very successful farmer near Glyndon, Minnesota, discusses his family's experiences in farming since World War I. He describes how careful farm management enabled him to survive the depression of the 1920s and 1930s. He also discusses how the introduction of sugarbeet growing helped him prepare a better crop rotation.

Green, Manvel and Johanna [1990, 41 pages]
    Johanna Green, wife of George Green, an early grower in the St. Thomas, North Dakota area, describes the early years of sugarbeet cultivation, and the role of the farm wife. Her son, Manvel, discusses his experiences in growing sugarbeets, with particular attention to the development and use of pesticides and herbicides on the crop.

Grove, Telbert and Harlow [1990, 38 pages]
    The sons of two early growers in the Climax, Minnesota area, cousins Telbert and Harlow describe their experiences in growing and the profitability of sugarbeets compared to other crops. They speculate on the future of the sugarbeet industry in the Valley.

Grover, W. V. [1989, 22 pages]
    Mr. Grover, a farmer in the Glyndon, Minnesota area, describes his experiences in growing sugarbeets since 1936. He describes the development of systems for delivering sugarbeets to the processing plants, including the importance of the modern system of piling stations. He also discusses the importance of weather factors for a successful crop.

Gunderson, Emmett [1991, 53 pages]
    Mr. Gunderson (1920-1995) was a field man for American Crystal Sugar Company from 1949 to 1990. He discusses his experiences in advising sugarbeet growers, including details of the growers' contracts, the administration of migrant labor, and his role in the annual harvesting campaigns. He also describes how the field man's role changed after the purchase of American Crystal in 1973.

Helmeke, Harold [1990, 43 pages]
    Mr. Helmeke grew sugarbeets on his Georgetown, Minnesota area farm from 1948 to 1979. He also served on the Board of Directors of the RRVSGA. In his interview he discusses the importance of careful planning and cultivation in a successful sugarbeet crop. He describes such factors as field preparation, seed selection, use of chemicals, machinery, migrant labor, and the annual harvest. He also notes the importance of federal legislation for domestic sugar.

Howe, George [1990, 32 pages]
    Mr. Howe (1926-2002), a grower in Casselton, North Dakota, discusses specific problems he had with the old American Crystal Sugar Company. These include an attempt by the Company to reduce or cancel his contract. He also discusses his experiences in growing sugarbeets including selection of equipment, use of migrant labor, and governance of the RRVSGA.

Jensen, Alfred [1989, 27 pages]
    Mr. Jensen, a grower near Stephen, Minnesota, since 1953, has been chairman of the Marshall County Growers Association and a member of the RRVSGA Board of Directors. He discusses his experience in growing, the purchase of American Crystal by the growers, and the reorganizing of the Company. He was a member of the new American Crystal Board of Directors from 1973 to 1981.

Johnson, C. Einar [1989, 37 pages]
    Mr. Johnson's father, Carl A. Johnson, began growing sugarbeets in 1927 for the American Beet Sugar Company (later renamed American Crystal). Mr. Johnson began growing sugarbeets in 1930. He served on the RRVSGA Board of Directors. For several years he was president of the Western Sugarbeet Growers Association, a multi- state organization devoted to the expansion of sugarbeet acreage. In his interview, Mr. Johnson discusses his experiences in growing and the history of the Western Sugarbeet Growers Association.

Kiel, Lyle [1989, 28 pages]
    Mr. Kiel (1918-1998), whose family began growing sugarbeets in 1933, reviews his experiences in growing, especially the development of equipment for sugarbeet cultivation and harvesting. He also discusses his experiences as president of the RRVSGA from 1961-1965.

Koester, R. Richard [1989, 34 pages]
    Mr. Koester, a grower in rural Clay County, Minnesota, discusses his family's success in growing sugarbeets. He provides information on weather factors, fertilizer use, migrant labor, progress in equipment, and the importance of the RRVSGA in the expansion of acreage. He also compares the expense and profitability of sugarbeets to a variety of grain crops.

Krabbenhoft, Richard [1990, 36 pages]
    Mr. Krabbenhoft, an employee of the American Crystal Sugar Company since 1961, reviews his career. He discusses his experiences in dealing with growers as a field man and his management of the East Grand Forks, Minnesota, processing plant. He also reviews his year as general agriculturist for the Company in 1977-1978, and his transfer to the marketing division. Currently responsible for industrial sales of American Crystal Sugar, he provides an overview of the international sugar market.

LaHaise, Larry [1990, 39 pages]
    Mr. LaHaise is a grower near Drayton, North Dakota. In his interview, he provides considerable detail on the expense and profitability of sugarbeet growing. He discusses the cost of equipment, the hiring of migrant labor, and the cost and application of chemicals. He compares the profits on sugarbeets to his grain crops and the differing profits from growing on rented land compared to owned land. He also explains how he financed his shares in the purchase of American Crystal Sugar Company.

Lykken Farms [1992, 44 pages]
    Three members of the Lykken family of Auburn, North Dakota, discuss their experiences in growing sugarbeets.  They reflect on the changes in the industry since the family began growing sugarbeets for American Crystal.

Martin, Victor [1989, 21 pages]
    A grower on his farm near Sabin, Minnesota, Mr. Martin discusses his 30 years of experience with growing and being a member of the RRVSGA. He discusses in some detail the use of migrant labor, including the changes in the way they were hired, paid, and housed.

Ness, Don [1990, 35 pages]
    A grower near Ada, Minnesota, Mr. Ness describes his family's experiences in growing. He also discusses many of the leaders of the RRVSGA, some of the legislatures and congressmen who have supported the domestic sugar industry, and his forecast of the future of the American sugar industry.

Ness, Walter [1989, 15 pages]
    Mr. Ness was a county agricultural extension agent in Colorado and later North Dakota, for 32 years. He discusses his experiences in working with various sugarbeet growers. He was also one of the early organizers of the sugarbeet growers institutes held yearly in Crookston, Minnesota. He discusses these institutes and their importance to the industry.

Nyquist, Robert [1989, 28 pages]
    Mr. Nyquist's family has been raising sugarbeets since 1936. Mr. Nyquist discusses his experiences with emphasis on the preparation of the soil, the varieties of seeds, and the difficulties in transporting and delivering beets during harvest. He also discusses the varieties of laborers he has employed through the years, including migrant workers and prisoners of war. He concludes his interview with an analysis of the 1985 farm bill and its impact on the sugar industry.

Peet, Ted [1989, 35 pages]
    A native of Wolverton, Minnesota, Mr. Peet was one of the first growers of sugarbeets in Wilkin County. Mr. Peet discusses his experiences in growing, including his collaboration with the American Crystal Sugar Company in testing a wide variety of sugarbeets seeds. He reviews his many years as a member of the RRVSGA Board of Directors and his presidency of the Western Sugarbeet Growers Association. Although he retired from growing in 1965, Mr. Peet later helped form the Minn-Dak Farmers Cooperative, another association of sugarbeet growers.

Reitmeier, Edward [1990, 32 pages]
    The Reitmeier family is amongst the 19 original growers for the American Beet Sugar Company (later American Crystal). Mr. Reitmeier (1917-1998) discusses in detail his family's experiences in growing since 1922. This interview contains particularly vivid memories of early growing, including the reliance on horse teams for cultivation, harvest, etc. Mr. Reitmeier also discusses his several terms on the RRVSGA Board of Directors. He relates the purchase of American Crystal in 1973 and reviews his actions on the reorganized American Crystal Board during the early years of the cooperative.

Robertson, William [1990, 42 pages]
    Mr. Robertson, a native of Warren, Minnesota, was a charter member of the Red River Valley Co-operative, which was established by farmers in the Warren-Argyle area for cultivating sugarbeets. He discusses in detail the formation of the Co-operative, and its operations. He also describes the financing of the sugarbeet processing plant in Hillsboro, North Dakota, by the Co-operative. He explains the details involved in the merger of the Co-operative with RRVSGA in 1975. He also relates his activities as a member of the American Crystal Board of Directors for twelve years after the merger.

Ronan, Thomas A. [1990, 35 pages]
    Mr. Ronan, whose father began growing sugarbeets in 1927, discusses his experiences in growing. He relates the differences in growing sugarbeets in the 1980s compared to earlier decades, including the advances in technology and financing. He discusses the expense and maintenance of modern equipment, the importance of chemical use in the soil, and the agronomics of the acreage-labor ratio. He concludes with a discussion of  the importance of the various growers' associations, including the RRVSGA, to the continued existence of sugarbeet agriculture.

Ross, Armin and Jim [1989, 55 pages]
    Son and grandson, respectively, of Walter Ross, the first president of the Red River Valley Sugarbeet Growers Association, Armin and Jim Ross describe their experiences. Armin Ross discusses growing sugarbeets in the Crookston, Minnesota, area. He also describes his work on the RRVSGA Board of Directors. He was president of the organization immediately after the purchase of American Crystal and also served on the reorganized American Crystal Board of Directors. He relates his activities in connection with these and also discusses journeys to Washington, D.C., to discuss the importance of domestic sugar with several lawmakers. Jim Ross, in partnership with his father since 1971, describes the challenges of growing sugarbeets in the 1980s. He provides an overview of the national and international sugar markets, including the increasing importance of the GATT agreements.

Ross, Gerhard [1989, 35 pages]
    Mr. Ross, another member of the Ross family, one of the earliest families to grow sugarbeets in the Valley, discusses his experiences in growing in the Fisher, Minnesota, area. He discusses his particular interest in research in sugarbeet cultivation, including soil preparation, seed variety, and chemical use. Mr. Ross was instrumental in the creation of the annual sugarbeet growers institutes in Crookston, Minnesota. He describes the activities at these institutes. He also discusses his work as chairman of the Research and Education Board of the RRVSGA. In relating his own experiences in growing sugarbeets, he discusses many problems between growers and the management of the American Crystal Sugar Company prior to 1973.

Sanchez, Jesus, Jr. [1990, 31 pages]
    Jesse Sanchez, a migrant laborer for many years, relates his experiences working on various sugarbeet farms in Clay County, Minnesota. He describes the nature of the work, the conditions of migrant housing, and the importance of the industry to his own family and to migrant laborers in general. Now a junior high school teacher in Texas, Mr. Sanchez continues to travel to Minnesota to teach in a summer school program for migrant children in Moorhead, Minnesota. He describes the difficulties faced by migrant children in obtaining an education, and comments on discrimination in the Red River Valley.

Sillers, Douglas [1990, 59 pages]
    Mr. Sillers, a farmer and sugarbeet grower since 1946, also served in the Minnesota legislature for 18 years. In his interview, Mr. Sillers describes in detail his experiences as a grower. He also describes the development of the RRVSGA as an effective instrument for the needs of its members. He relates how the RRVSGA hired its first executive secretary in 1961 and grew into a strong advocate for the growers. He also explains how he, as a member of the House of Representatives, helped to establish a university research program for sugarbeet agriculture, jointly funded by the states of Minnesota and North Dakota. Throughout his legislative career, Mr. Sillers was active in agriculture policy for Minnesota.

Sinner, George [1993, 28 pages]
    Mr. Sinner, a former governor of North Dakota, discusses his experiences in farming, including his tenure as president of the Red River Valley Sugarbeet Growers.  He discusses the progress that has been made in sugarbeet agriculture over the years, and he explains the role that American Crystal has had in the region's economy, and in the national and international sugar market.

Sinner, Leo [1987, 20 pages]
    Mr. Sinner (1895-1987) relates his experiences in growing sugarbeets for American Crystal from 1927 until his retirement in 1960. He discusses the organization of the Cass County [North Dakota] Growers Association and its affiliation with the RRVSGA. He discusses early growing techniques, difficulties with the climate, and with various pests and diseases that threatened the sugarbeet crop.

Sinner, Thomas [1990, 46 pages]
    The son of Leo Sinner, Tom Sinner discusses his career in sugarbeet agriculture. He describes his experiences in growing including the use of chemicals and the employment of migrant labor. Mr. Sinner also relates his experiences as president of the Cass County [North Dakota] Growers Association and as a member of the RRVSGA Board of Directors. He discusses the purchase of American Crystal and the reorganization of the company, during which time he served on the new American Crystal Board of Directors.

Swift, Ed [1989, 42 pages]
    Now retired, Mr. Swift was employed at American Crystal Sugar Company from 1936 to 1981. He discusses his experiences as a field man, as a recruiter of migrant labor, and as manager of one of the company's processing plants. As a director of agricultural research for American Crystal, Mr. Swift conducted a wide variety of research into beet agriculture. This included the replacement of multi-germ and segmented seed with mono-germ seed, the introduction of chemical herbicides and pesticides, and innovations in balancing crop volume with sugar content. He discusses all of this in considerable detail.

Trowbridge, Hugh [1989, 24 pages]
    Mr. Trowbridge (1899-1990) describes his experiences in sugarbeet cultivation on his farm near Comstock, Minnesota. He relates in particular the early years of sugarbeets in the region, including the early methods of harvest and delivery of the crop to the processing plant. He also discusses the early years of the RRVSGA, of which he served as its second president. He relates some of the difficulties that existed between the growers and American Crystal Sugar Company. He also discusses some of the early efforts in lobbying by growers for expanded sugar acreage.

Wiese, Glenn [1990, 38 pages]
    Mr. Wiese's family began growing sugarbeets near Crookston, Minnesota, in 1936. Mr. Wiese (1918-1995) discusses his early memories in sugarbeet cultivation. He describes his transfer of his sugarbeet contract to a newer farm near Halstad, Minnesota, in 1942. He discusses difficulties between American Crystal and the growers, culminating in the purchase of the Company in 1973. As a member of the new American Crystal Board of Directors from 1973 to 1979, Mr. Wiese relates how the company was reorganized as a growers cooperative. He concludes with a discussion of how much more sophisticated and expensive sugarbeet growing is today, compared to when he started.

Youngquist, Bernie [1989, 27 pages]
    Dr. Youngquist, former superintendent of the Northwest Agricultural Station at Crookston, Minnesota, discusses his career in working with sugarbeet growers and the RRVSGA. He relates the organization in 1963 of the sugarbeet growers institutes (now called the International Sugarbeet Institutes). He discusses a wide variety of research conducted by the station for improvement of sugarbeet cultivation.

Zamora, Alvaro [1991, 32 pages]
    Mr. Zamora, a native of Crystal City, Texas, describes his experiences as a migrant worker in Minnesota and North Dakota. He describes the nature of migrant labor in the sugarbeet industry, including the pay received, the nature of migrant housing, and the relationships between migrant laborers and local growers. He discusses how migrant labor in the Valley has been important for the economic progress of many Hispanic individuals and families. He explains why many Mexican-Americans are choosing to settle permanently in the Red River Valley. He reflects on how this change in the Valley's demography may affect the future of the economy and society of the region.

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Series 8: Labor

Box 20

File 1 - Accident Reports and Insurance Claims, 1965, 1972-1975.

File 2 - Annual Reports, American Crystal Labor Agency, 1964-1969.

File 3 - Annual Reports, Details of Labor Procurement from Texas, 1943.

File 4 - Annual Reports, Report of Field Labor Procurement, American Crystal Company, 1953-1955, 1957-1962.

File 5 - Annual Reports, Report of Labor Procurement, Sullivan, 1948-1949, 1951, 1956.

File 6 - Annual Reports, Report of M.C. Sullivan, 1947, 1950.

File 7 - Annual Reports, Texas Labor Procurement Data of Eastern District, 1945-1946.

File 8 - Budget, general labor department expenses, American Crystal Company, 1970-1974.

File 9 - Correspondence, general, 1962-1969.

File 10 - Correspondence, general, 1970-1977.

File 11 - Correspondence, recruiters, undated, 1968-1970, 1975-1976.

File 12 - Farm labor, legislation and general information, 1961, 1965-1966, 1970-1971, 1973-1976.

File 13 - Farm labor, legislation and general information, 1977-1979.

File 14 - Federal/state legislation and regulations, 1957, 1961, 1964-1966, 1968-1970, 1974.

File 15 - Field labor losses and uncollectables, various dates.

File 16 - Labor records, forms.

Volumes - Labor records, ledger, San Antonio, Texas, 1972-1975.

File 17 - Miscellaneous, field labor data,  1948, 1970.

File 18 - Miscellaneous, field labor data, 1971.

File 19 - Miscellaneous, field labor data, 1972.

File 20 - Miscellaneous, field labor data, 1973.

Volume - Money receipts ledger, 1971.

Cassette Tape - The Season of Discomfort - Migrants in the Red River Valley, June 1990.

File 21 - Tax reports, labor, various dates.

File 22 - Texas Bureau of Labor Statistics, application licenses, various dates.

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Series 9: American Crystal Sugar Company

Box 21

Volumes - Crop Information Reports, computer reports of crop yields by home station and country, herbicide use, and crop analysis, 1926-1944.

Box 22

Volumes - Crop Information Reports, computer reports of crop yields by home station and country, herbicide use, and crop analysis, 1945-1956.

Box 23

Volumes - Crop Information Reports, computer reports of crop yields by home station and country, herbicide use, and crop analysis, 1957-1965.

Box 24

Volumes - Crop Information Reports, computer reports of crop yields by home station and country, herbicide use, and crop analysis, 1966-1974.

Box 25

Volumes - Crop Information Reports, computer reports of crop yields by home station and country, herbicide use, and crop analysis, 1975-1979.

Box 26

Volumes - Statistical Reports, records of rainfall, tonnage of beets, inventories, lab data, etc, from different American Crystal companies, 1929-1940.

Box 27

Volumes - Statistical Reports, records of rainfall, tonnage of beets, inventories, lab data, etc, from different American Crystal companies, 1940-1951.

Box 28

Volumes - Statistical Reports, records of rainfall, tonnage of beets, inventories, lab data, etc, from different American Crystal companies, 1951-1960.

Box 29

Volumes - Statistical Reports, records of rainfall, tonnage of beets, inventories, lab data, etc, from different American Crystal companies, 1960-1971.

Box 30

Volumes - Statistical Reports, records of rainfall, tonnage of beets, inventories, lab data, etc, from different American Crystal companies, 1971-1979.

Box 31

Research photographs and index cards - Materials from the American Crystal research offices in Denver, Colorado, concerning beet varieties, beet diseases, root systems, and other areas of sugarbeet cultivation.  The photographs are of beet technology and agronomy, including photos of root diseases, planting and cultivating techniques, beet equipment and other topics.  The set of index cards contain article summaries on beet growing. The articles, appearing in government and industry publications between 1915 and 1936, concern a variety of special subjects, including tests for sugar content, beet by-products, beet diseases, methods for cultivation, harvesting, weeding, and information on the can sugar industry.  ca. 1915-1940.

Boxes 32 - 36

3,000 plus slides, beet diseases, growth rates, and research; beet equipment and facilities; beet fields; beet piles; beet planting, cultivating, and harvesting; 1940s-

Box 37

Glass negatives - Thirty-four glass negatives from the company's files, made in the 1920s, with images of beet fields in Rocky Ford, Montana, and some images of beet seed research results.  Because of the fragile nature of these negatives, the box is housed separately from the rest of the collection.

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Series 10: American Crystal Sugar Company
Miscellaneous Research Material

Box 38

File 1 - American Beet Sugar Company, agricultural meeting minutes, 1917-1918.

File 2 - American Beet Sugar Company, Oxnard Faculty Employees Club, minutes, 1918, 1920.

File 3 - American Crystal Sugar, annual meetings, minutes.  1979, 1982.

File 4 - American Crystal Sugar, examples of share certificates, undated, 1940, 1955.

Volume -  Bass, Stewart, court deposition, Freeze case, 1984.

File 5 - From California to the Red River: The Sage of American Crystal Sugar, by Jim Fogerty, undated.

File 6 - International Sugarbeet Historical Society.

File 7 - Journal Articles.

File 8 - Minnesota Legislation, 1951, 1993-1994.

File 9 - Miscellaneous.

File 10 - Missoula, Montana, annual report, miscellaneous reports by Stewert Bass, 1954-1958.

Volume - Psychrometric tables, United States Department of Commerce, 1941.

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