Professional and Honorary Titles
Capitalize brief titles when used
before the individual’s name. Never capitalize titles used after
the name or titles that stand alone.
|Never capitalize a title
used alone, no matter how important it seems.|
The president signed the bill.
The pope blessed the multitude.
used before an individual's name are
capitalized. Avoid using long, bureaucratic, elaborate
titles before names, however; instead of "State Forensic
Pathologist and Director of State Laboratories Gus Grissom,"
paraphrase and lower-case: "lab director Gus Grissom" or
"state pathologist Gus Grissom." The alternative is to place
the full title after the name, set off by a comma. (Since
it's behind the name, it wouldn't be capitalized.)|
|Never capitalize a job title
that stands alone. If it isn't followed
by a proper name, it's lower case.|
She was promoted to
vice president for market development.
descriptions are not considered titles and are not
capitalized: astronaut John Glenn, actor Zac Efron, teacher
|Formal titles are
those the denote a scope of authority, professional rank or
academic rank: professor, judge, mayor, doctor, king,
emperor. Remember, they're capitalized when used with a
proper name, but not when used alone. |
formal titles are not abbreviated when used with a proper
name. Only a few titles can be abbreviated:|
and law enforcement titles, including Gen. Patton, Lt.
Fuzz, Cpl. Klinger, Sgt. Friday, Pvt. Beetle Bailey|
President, Vice President|
Courtesy Titles: Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms.
|Both men and women are introduced
with their first and last names — and without a courtesy
title — on first reference.|
|Use courtesy titles (Mr., Miss etc)
only in direct quotations. Refer to all adults by last name
on second reference. First names are generally used for
children (usually those under 16, depending on context).|
|If the person's gender isn't clear
from his or her first name (Pat, Lesley), make this clear by
referring to him or her by the appropriate pronoun soon
after the first reference.|