The Physical and Chemical Properties of Water


The Water Molecule

     H2O - dipole structure

     Hydrogen Bonds


     Solvent power & high heat capacity

Changes of State

     Temperature and Heat

    Average kinetic energy versus total kinetic energy


     The physical states of water

    Liquid, solid, and gas

    H bonds = high heat capacity

    Latent heat of fusion

    Latent heat of vaporization

Other consequences of H bonds


     Surface Tension


H2O Density

     1 g/cm3


     Temperature and density


     How does salinity influence density?

Transmission of Energy

     Heat - Conduction, convection, radiation


     Visible light

     Refracted, absorbed, scattered


     How far does light penetrate into the ocean

     Photic Zone

The Chemistry of Seawater

            Acidity and alkalinity - H+ and OH-


     pH of Seawater = 7.8


            Why is seawater buffered?


     Solvent power


     Disolved ions


amount of dissolved ions in seawater..


-> normal salinity = 3.5% or 35 parts per thousand (ppt)


Tropics = lowest salinity->high precip.=> 34.5

Subtropics=highest salinity ->high evaporation => 36


Why does this surface pattern exist?


     Where does the salt come from?


     Why is salinity so stable?


Chemistry of Seawater

     Major constituents

     Trace elements


     Principle of Constant Proportion

Chemistry of Seawater


        N2, O2, and CO2


     Why are concentration of O2 high but CO2 low in the upper 100 m?


     Why does O2 reach a minimum between 200 and 800 m?


     Temperature, salinity, and pressure



CO2 and O2

     The Carbon Cycle

     The biological pump - deep ocean = carbon sink


     The Oxygen Balance

    Photosynthesis <=> Weathering


     N, P, and Si

     Nonconservative elements

     Limiting elements