Chapter 3

Personal, Social, and Emotional Development

I. Erikson

A. Framework for understanding needs of students in relation to society

1. Emergence of self, the search for identity, and the individual's relationship with others

2. Psychosocial: all humans have same basic developmental needs; society must provide for needs

3. Stages: eight developmental crises/conflicts need a positive resolution for healthy future development

B. The preschool years: trust, autonomy, and initiative

1. Infant develops sense of trust when needs for food and care are satisfied; trusting more important as realization of separateness form the world grows

2. Autonomy versus shame and doubt - developmentof confidence and control; call for protective but not overprotective parents

3. Initiative versus guilt: zest for initiating activities balanced against need for restraint; learning about adult roles through pretend games and increased ability to perform grown-up tasks

C. Elementary and middle school years: Industry versus inferiority

1. Industry: Desire to do productive work with a growing sense of competence; difficulty can resultin feeling of inferiority

2. Indudtrions childhood leads to well-adjusted adulthood

3. Guidelines: Encouraging Industry

D. Adolescence: The search for identity

1. Identity: the organization of person's drives, avilities, beliefs, and history into a structure of self

2. Identity versus role confusion: Answer to the question Who am I? is based on earlier resolutions

3. Identity statuses

a) identity achievement

b) identity foreclosure

c) identity diffusion

d) moratorium

4. Guidelines: Supporting Identity Formation

E. Beyond the school years: Human relations in adulthood

1. Intimacy versus isolation: Ability to have a close personal relationship

2. generativity versus self-absorption: Caring for the needs for future generations in a broad sense. Pooductivity and creativity are essential features

3. Integrity versus despair: Integrity means consolidation one's sense of self

II. Understanding ourselves and others

A. Self-concept: a cognitive structure representing a conposite of ideas, feelings, attitudes a person has about themselves

B. Self-esteem: an affective reaction involving an evaluation of the self-concept

C. Self-esteem and school life

1. Higher self-essteem related to more positive attitudes and success in school

2. Student self-esteem influenced by teachers' caring, feedback, and evaluation

3. Lack of competence in an area that is not valued does not threaten self-esteem

4. Greatest increases in self-esteem come when students become more competent in areas they value

5. Suggestins for Encouraging Self-esteem (table 3.2)

III. Kohlberg's stages of moral development

A. Pre-converntional (stages 1,2): Judgement based on person's own needs and perceptions

B. Converntional (stages 3,4): Taking into account expectations of society and law

C. Post-converntional (stages 5,6): Judgments based on principles that go beyond specific laws

D. Moral dilemmas: hypothetical situations in which no choice is absolutely right--used to evaluate moral reasoning

E. Level of moral reasoning related to both cognitive and emotional development

IV. Alternatives to Kohlberg's Theory

A. The problem with stages

1. In real life, stages not separate, sequenced and consistent

2. Ordering of stages indicates a sex and cultural bias

B. Criticisms

1. Social conventions versus moral issues are not distinguished

2. Cultural differences in moral reasoning are ignored

C. Morality as caring

1. Empathy

2. Friendships

3. A curriculum of caring (table 3.5)

D. Moral behavior

1. Influences on moral behavior

a) internalization

b) modeling

2. Typical moral issues in classrooms

a) Cheating: involves specific situations; not just beliefs about right and wrong

b) Aggression: role models often seem to condone violent behavior

3. Guidelines: dealing with aggression and encouraging cooperation