Wisenden home     Biosciences Dept     MSUM

Brian D. Wisenden
Faculty 1998-  Minnesota State University Moorhead
Post Doc 1997-1998 University of Alberta
Post Doc 1995-1997 University of Kentucky
Post Doc 1993-1995 University of Saskatchewan
PhD 1993  University of Western Ontario
MSc 1998  Lakehead University
BSc 1985 University of Guelph

updated Feb 2022

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Publications (* denotes undergraduate co-author)

98. Wisenden BD, Paulson* DC, Orr M. 2022. Zebrafish embryos hatch early in response to chemical and mechanical indicators of predation risk, resulting in under-developed swimming ability of hatchling larvae. Biology Open.

97. Stockwell CA, Schmelzer MR, Gillis* B, Anderson CM, Wisenden BD. 2022. Ignorance is not bliss: Evolutionary naivete in an endangered desert fish and implications for conservation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B.

96. Strand* MC, DeVriendt* IG, Seigel* AR, Merkord CL, Wisenden BD. 2022. Hypoxia constrains behavioral responses to chemical alarm cues by fathead minnows Pimephales promelas. Environmental Biology of Fishes.link

95. Seigel* AR, DeVriendt* IG, Strand* MC, Shastri A, Wisenden BD. 2022. Association of predation risk with a heterospecific vocalization by an anabantoid fish. Journal of Fish Biology 100: 543-548. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.14965 pdf

94. Wisenden BD, Taylor* AA, Undem* JD, Wagner CM. 2022. Moby-Bass: suction feeding by predators limits direct release of alarm cues in fishes. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 76:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-022-03146-0.

93. Wisenden BD, Eaton MD. 2021. We encourage collection of more data to better understand visual ecology: a reply to O'Daniels et al. 2021. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 133:167-17 link  

92. Pandey S, Stockwell CA, Snider MR, Wisenden BD. 2021. Epidermal club cells in fishes: a case for ecoimmunological analysis? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 22(3): 1440, https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/22/3/1440

91. Seigel* AR, DeVriendt* IG, Hohenstein* SJ, Lueders* MB, Shastri A, Wisenden BD. 2021. Tone deaf: association of an auditory stimulus with predation risk does not generalize to another auditory stimulus. Behavioural Processes 189:104421 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2021.104421  pdf

90. Bruns HA, Wisenden BD, Vanniasinkam T, Taylor R, Elliott SL, Sparks-Thissen RL, Justement LB, Pandey S. 2021. Inside the undergraduate immunology classroom: current practices that provide a framework for curriculum consensus. Journal of Microbiology and Biology Education 22(1): 22.1.8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7861212/

89. Schaefer* A, Ceesay* M, Leier* J, Tesch* J, Wisenden BD, Pandey S. 2020. Factors contributing to sex differences in mice inhaling Aspergillus fumigatus. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 8851 doi:10.3390/ijerph17238851

88. Wisenden BD. 2020. Effect of predation on shaping parental brood defense and larval ontogeny of convict cichlids leading to population divergence. Diversity 12: 136 doi:10.3390/d12040136 pdf

87. Wisenden BD, Eaton MD, Arendell* MA, Bushlack* BR, Clark* IJ, Egan* DL, Faulkner* AE, Fox* M, Fox* MC, Gilbert* C, Gillen* JC, Greenberg* JS, Holstrom* IE, Kobilka* AC, Lee* AE, Molitor* SA, Parker* AB, Pokutnaya* D, Polanco* I, Powers* D, Skelly* KM, Skogen* EE, Taylor* SJ, Wiswall* TR, Zahedi* M. 2020. Male Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) respond with greater intensity to epaulets with UV reflectance. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 132: 39-44 https://doi-org.ezp3.lib.umn.edu/10.1676/1559-4491-132.1.39. pdf

86. Wisenden BD. 2019. Evidence for incipient alarm signalling in fish. Journal of Animal Ecology, 88: 1278-1280. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.13062 pdf

85. Wisenden PA, Budke* KJ, Klemetson* CJ, Kurtti* TR, Patel* CM, Schwantz* TL, Wisenden BD. 2018. Emotional response of undergraduates to cadaver dissection. Clinical Anatomy 31: 224-230, doi: 10.1002/ca.22992 pdf

84. Barkhymer* AJ, Garrett SG, Wisenden BD. 2018. Olfactorily-mediated cortisol response to chemical alarm cues in zebrafish Danio rerio. Journal of Fish Biology 95: 287-292; doi: 10.1111/jfb.13860 pdf

83. Faulkner* AE, Holstrom* IE, Molitor* SA, Hanson* ME, Shegrud* WR, Gillen* JC, Willard* SJ, Wisenden BD. 2017. Field verification of chondroitin sulfate as a putative component of chemical alarm cue in wild populations of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Chemoecology 27: 233-238; doi: 10.1007/s00049-017-0247-z

82. Neill*, CN, Cotner S, Wisenden BD. 2017. Solar-powered aquatic mesocosm for field studies. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 8: 1703-1706. https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.12818 pdf

81. Wisenden BD, Stumbo* AD, McEwen DC, McIntire* K, Scheierl* J, Aasand J, North* H, Gilbertson* J, Grant* D, Joseph* F, Mammenga* E, Walsh* R, Brisch E. 2016. Population-specific co-evolution of offspring antipredator competence and parental brood defense in Nicaraguan convict cichlids. Environmental Biology of Fishes 99: 325-333, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10641-016-0476-y pdf

80. Pan* T, Gladen* K, Duncan* E, Cotner S, Cotner J, Wisenden BD. 2016. Bold, sedentary fathead minnows have more parasites. Zebrafish 13: 248-255, https://doi.org/10.1089/zeb.2015.1185. pdf

79. Lee-Jenkins SSY, Smith ML, Wisenden BD, Wong A, Godin J-GJ. 2015. Genetic evidence for mixed broods and extra-pair fertilizations in a socially monogamous biparental cichlid fish. Behaviour 152: 1507-1526, https://doi.org/10.1163/1568539X-00003289 pdf

78. Leiser JK, Gagliardi-Seeley J, Wisenden BD, Itzkowitz MI. 2015. Promiscuous mating patterns of female Leon Springs pupfish, Cyprinodon bovinus. Journal of Fish Biology 87: 604-615 https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.12738. pdf

77. Wisenden BD. 2015. The cue-signal continuum: an evolutionary trajectory for semiochemicals in fishes. In: Fish Pheromones and Related Cues (Sorensen PW and Wisenden BD, eds). Wiley-Blackwell Press. pdf

76. Wisenden BD. 2015. Chemical cues that indicate risk of predation. In: Fish Pheromones and Related Cues (Sorensen PW and Wisenden BD, eds). Wiley-Blackwell Press. pdf

75. Sorensen PW, Wisenden BD (eds) 2015. Fish Pheromones and Related Cues. Wiley-Blackwell Press.

74. Wisenden BD, Stumbo* AD, Self* PA, Snekser JL, Wisenden PA, Keenleyside MHA, McEwen DC, Itzkowitz M, Brisch E. 2015. Co-evolution of offspring antipredator competence and parental brood defense in convict cichlids. Hydrobiologia 748: 259-272, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-014-1917-2 pdf

73. Wisenden BD, Mammenga* EA, Storseth* CN, Berglund* NJ. 2014. Odor-tracking by larval convict cichlids and a mechanism for alloparental brood amalgamation. Animal Behaviour 93: 201-206. pdf

72. Holley* ED, Ludwig* KJ, McEwen DC, Wisenden BD. 2014. Predictability of food supply, but not ration, increases exploratory behaviour. Journal of Fish Biology 85: 597-604. pdf

71. Sutrisno* R, Schotte* PM, Schultz SK, Wisenden BD. 2014. Fin-flicking behaviour as a means of cryptic olfactory sampling under threat of predation. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 23: 656-658. pdf

70. Sutrisno* R, Schotte* PM, Wisenden BD. 2014. Chemical arms race between predator and prey: a test of predator digestive counter-measures against chemical labeling by dietary cues of prey. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 29: 17-23. pdf

69. Nelson* AB, Alemadi SD, Wisenden BD. 2013. Learned recognition of novel predator odour by convict cichlid embryos. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 67: 1269-1273. pdf

68. Kalueff A, Stewart AM, Cachat J, Maximino C, Jesuthasan S, Wisenden B, Bally-Cuif L, Lange M, Vernier P, Norton W, Tierney K, Tropepe V, Neuhauss S, International Zebrafish Neuroscience Research Consortium (ZNRC). 2012. Time to recognize zebrafish 'affective' behavior? Behaviour (special issue on contributions of zebrafish to the study of behavior). Behaviour 149: 1019-1036. pdf

67. Stumbo A, James C, Goater C, Wisenden BD. 2012. Shoaling as an anti-parasite defence in minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to trematode cercariae. Journal of Animal Ecology 81: 1319-1326. pdf

66. Wisenden BD, Martinez-Marquez* JY, Gracia* ES, McEwen DC. 2012. High intensity and prevalence of two species of trematode metacercariae in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) with no compromise of minnow anti-predator competence. Journal of Parasitology 98: 722-727. pdf

65. Wisenden BD. 2012. Cognitive dysfunction and risk assessment by prey: predictable global climate changes have unpredictable effects. Functional Ecology 26: 551-552. pdf

64. Wisenden BD, Sailer* CD, Radenic* SJ, Sutrisno* R. 2012. Heritability of exploratory-boldness behavioral syndrome in zebrafish. Behaviour 148: 1443-1456. pdf

63. Olson* JA, Olson* JM, Walsh* RE, Wisenden BD. 2012. A method to train groups of predator-naive fish to recognize and respond to predators when released into the natural environment. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 32: 77-81 pdf

62. Sailer* CD, Radenic* SJ, Wisenden BD. 2012. A method for sorting zebrafish on the exploratory-boldness behavioral axis. In: Zebrafish Neurobehavioral Protocols Vol II (Kalueff AV, Stewart A, eds). H1umana Press (Springer Science). pp. 145-151. pdf

61. Wisenden BD. 2011. Quantifying anti-predator response to chemical alarm cues. In: Zebrafish Behavioral Protocols (Kalueff AV, Hart P, LaPorte J, eds). Humana Press (Springer Science). pp. 49-60. pdf

60. Wisenden BD. 2011. Learned recognition by zebrafish and other cyprinids. In: Zebrafish Models in Neurobehavioral Research (Kalueff AV, Hart P, LaPorte J, eds). Humana Press (Springer Science). pp. 210-221. pdf

59. Ferrari MCO, Wisenden BD, Chivers DP. 2010. Chemical ecology of predator-prey interactions in aquatic ecosystems: a review and prospectus. Canadian Journal of Zoology 88: 698-724 pdf

58. Wisenden BD, Binstock* CL, Knoll* KE, Linke* AD, Demuth* BS. 2010. Risk-sensitive information gathering by cyprinids following release of chemical alarm cues. Animal Behaviour 79: 1101-1107 pdf

57. Pellegrini* AFA, Wisenden BD and Sorensen PW. 2010. Bold minnows consistently approach danger in the field and lab in response to either chemical or visual indicators of predation risk. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 64: 381 - 387. pdf

56. James CT, Wisenden BD, Goater CP. 2009. Epidermal club cells do not protect fathead minnows against trematode cercariae: a test of the anti-parasite hypothesis. Journal of the Linnean Society 98: 884-890. pdf

55. Wisenden BD, Unruh* A, Morantes* A, Bury* S, Curry* B, Driscoll* R, Hussein* M, Markegard* S. 2009. Functional constraints on nest characteristics of pebble mounds of breeding male hornyhead chub, Nocomis biguttatus. Journal of Fish Biology 75: 1577-1585 pdf

54. Wisenden BD, Rugg* ML, Korpi* NL, Fuselier LC. 2009. Estimates of active time of chemical alarm cues in a cyprinid fish and an amphipod crustacean. Behaviour 146: 1423-1442. pdf

53. Wisenden BD, Alemadi* SD, Dye* TP, Geray* K, Hendrickson* J, Rud* C, Jensen* M, Sonstegard* G, Malott ML. 2009. Effects of nest substrate on egg deposition and incubation conditions in a natural population of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Canadian Journal of Zoology 87: 379-387. Abstract pdf

52. Wisenden BD, Goater CP, James CT. 2009. Behavioral defenses against parasites and pathogens. In: Fish Defenses: Pathogens, Parasites, Predators vol 2 (Giacomo Z, Perri�re C, Mathis A, Kapoor B.G. eds). Science Publishers. pp 151-168. pdf

51. Wisenden BD, Dye* TP. 2009. Young convict cichlids use visual information to update olfactory homing cues. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 63: 443-449. pdf

50. Wisenden BD, Snekser JL, Stumbo* AD, Leese JM. 2008. Parental defense of an empty nest after catastrophic brood loss. Animal Behaviour 76: 2059-2067. pdf

49. James CT, Noyes* KJ, Stumbo* AD, Wisenden BD, Goater CP. 2008. Cost of exposure to trematode cercariae and learned recognition and avoidance of parasitism risk by fathead minnows. Journal of Fish Biology 73: 2238-2248 pdf

48. Wisenden BD. 2008. Active space of chemical alarm cue in natural fish populations. Behaviour 145: 391-407. pdf

47. Wisenden BD, Karst* J, Miller* J, Miller* S, Fuselier L. 2008. Anti-predator behaviour in response to conspecific chemical alarm cues in an esociform fish, Umbra limi (Kirtland 1840). Environmental Biology of Fishes. 82: 85-92.  pdf

46. Wisenden BD, Pogatshnik* J, Gibson* D, Bonacci* L, Schumacher* A &  Willett* A. 2008. Sound the alarm: Learned association of predation risk with novel auditory stimuli by fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and glowlight tetras (Hemigrammus erythrozonus) after single simultaneous pairings with conspecific chemical alarm cues. Environmental Biology of Fishes 81: 141-147. pdf

45. Chivers DP, Wisenden BD, Hindman CJ, Michalak TA, Kusch RC, Kaminskyj SGW, Jack KL, Ferrari MCO, Pollock RJ, Halbgewachs CF, Pollock MS, Alemadi* S, James CT, Savaloja* RK, Goater CP, Corwin* A, Mirza RS, Kiesecker JM, Brown GE, Adrian JCJr, Krone PH, Blaustein AR, Mathis A. 2007. Epidermal "alarm substance" cells of fishes are maintained by non-alarm functions: possible defence against pathogens, parasites and UVB radiation. Proceedings of the Royal Society London, Series B. 274: 2611-2620 pdf

44. Wisenden BD & Chivers DP 2006. The role of public chemical information in antipredator behaviour. In: Fish Communication (Ladich F, Collins SP, Moller P, Kapoor BG, eds), Science Publisher, NH, pp259-278. pdf

43. Wisenden BD & Barbour* KA. 2005. Antipredator responses to skin extract of redbelly dace by free-ranging populations of redbelly dace and fathead minnows. Environmental Biology of Fishes. 72: 227-233. pdf

42. Wisenden BD & Stacey NE 2005. Fish semiochemicals and the evolution of communication networks. In: Communication Networks (McGregor PK ed), Cambridge University Press. pp. 540-567. pdf

41. Wisenden BD, Klitzke* J, Nelson* R, Friedl D, & Jacobson, P. 2004. Predator-recognition training of hatchery-reared walleye and a field test of a training method using yellow perch. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62: 2144-2150. pdf

40. Wisenden BD, Vollbrecht* KA & Brown* JL. 2004. Is there a fish alarm cue? Affirming evidence from a wild study. Animal Behaviour 67: 59-67. pdf

39.  Stacey, N. E., B.D. Wisenden, P.W. Sorensen, (2003), Chemical Communications in Fish, in Chemical Ecology, [Ed. Jorg D. Hardege], in Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO, Eolss Publishers, Oxford ,UK, [http://www.eolss.net]. Revised in 2006 and republished in hardcover.

38. Pollock MS, Chivers DP, Mirza RS & Wisenden BD. 2003. Fathead minnows learn to recognize chemical alarm cues of introduced brook stickleback. Environmental Biology of Fishes 66: 313-319. pdf

37. Wisenden BD, Pollock MS, Tremaine RJ, Webb JM, Wismer ME & Chivers DP. 2003. Synergistic interactions between chemical alarm cues and the presence of conspecific and heterospecific fish shoals. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 54: 485-490. pdf

36. Wisenden BD. 2003. Chemically-mediated strategies to counter predation. In: Sensory Processing in the Aquatic Environment (Collin SP & Marshall NJ eds). pp 236-251. Springer-Verlag, NY . Summary table

35. Alemadi* SD & Wisenden BD. 2002. Antipredator response to injury-released chemical alarm cues by convict cichlid young before and after independence from parental care. Behaviour 139: 603-611. pdf

34. Wisenden BD & Thiel* TA. 2002. Field verification of predator attraction to minnow alarm substance. Journal of Chemical Ecology 28: 433-438. pdf

33.  Wisenden BD. 2002. The Evolution of Human Anatomy: An evolutionary atlas. 122 manuscript pages, 70 figures. Web content for Human Anatomy 3rd ed by Martini FH, Timmons MJ, McKinley MP (2002), Prentice Hall, NJ.

32. Wisenden BD & Millard* MC. 2001. Aquatic flatworms use chemical cues from injured conspecifics to assess predation risk and to associate risk with novel cues. Animal Behaviour 62: 761-766. pdf

31. Wisenden BD, Pohlman* SG & Watkin* EE. 2001. Avoidance of conspecific injury-released chemical cues by free-ranging Gammarus lacustris (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Journal of Chemical Ecology 27: 1249-1258. pdf

30. Wisenden BD & Harter* KR. 2001. Motion, not shape, facilitates association of predation risk with novel objects by fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Ethology 107: 357-364. pdf

29. Wisenden BD 2001. Brood defense and optimal brood size in convict cichlids Cichlasoma (Archocentrus) nigrofasciatum, a species with biparental care.  Journal of Aquariculture & Aquatic Sciences  9:303-320. Abstract

28. Korpi* NL & Wisenden BD. 2001. Learned recognition of novel predator odour by zebra danios, Danio rerio, following time-shifted presentation of alarm cue and predator odour. Environmental Biology of Fishes 61: 205-211. pdf

27. Wisenden BD. 2000. Olfactory assessment of predation risk. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 355: 1205-1208.  pdf

26. Wisenden BD. 2000. Scents of danger: the evolution of olfactory ornamentation in chemically-mediated predator-prey interactions. in: Animal Signals: Signalling and Signal Design in Animal Communication (Espmark Y, Amundsen T, & Rosenqvist G, eds). Tapir Academic Press, Trondheim, Norway. pp. 365-386.

25. Yunker* WK, Wein* DE & Wisenden BD. 1999. Conditioned alarm behavior in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) resulting from association of chemical alarm pheromone with a nonbiological visual stimulus. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 25: 2677-2686. pdf

24. Wisenden BD. 1999. Alloparental care in fishes. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries. 9: 45-70. pdf

23. Wisenden BD, Cline* A & Sparkes TC. 1999. Survival benefit to antipredator behavior in the amphipod Gammarus minus in response to injury-released chemical cues from conspecifics and heterospecifics. Ethology 105: 407-414. pdf

22. Wisenden BD & Smith RJF. 1998. A re-evaluation of the effect of shoalmate familiarity on the  proliferation of alarm substance cells in fathead minnows. Journal of Fish Biology. 53: 841-846. pdf

21. Sargent RC, Rush VN, Wisenden BD & Yan HY. 1998. Courtship and mate choice in fishes: Integrating behavioral and sensory ecology. American Zoologist 38: 82-96. pdf

20. Wisenden BD. 1998. Frog distress calls attract secondary predator, benefiting the signaler. Herpetological Review 29: 168.

19. Wudkevich* K, Wisenden BD, Chivers DP & Smith RJF. 1997. Reactions of Gammarus lacustris (Amphipoda) to chemical stimuli from natural predators and injured conspecifics. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 23: 1163-1173. pdf

18. Wisenden BD & Sargent RC. 1997. Antipredator behavior and suppressed aggression by convict cichlids in response to injury-released chemical cues of conspecifics but not to those of an allopatric heterospecific. Ethology 103: 283-291. pdf

17. Wisenden BD, Chivers DP & Smith RJF. 1997. Learned recognition of predation risk by Enallagma damselfly larvae (Odonata, Zygoptera) on the basis of chemical cues. Journal of Chemical Ecology 23: 135-151. pdf

16. Wisenden BD & Smith RJF. 1997. The effect of physical condition and shoal-mate familiarity on proliferation of alarm substance cells in the epidermis of fathead minnows. Journal of Fish Biology 50: 799-808. pdf

15. Chivers DP, Wisenden BD & Smith RJF. 1996. Damselfly larvae (Enallagma boreale) learn to recognize predators from chemical cues in the predator’s diet. Animal Behaviour 52: 315-320. pdf

14. Wisenden BD, Chivers DP & Smith RJF. 1995. Early warning in the predation sequence: a disturbance pheromone in Iowa darters (Etheostoma exile). Journal of Chemical Ecology 21: 1469-1480. pdf

13. Chivers DP, Wisenden BD & Smith RJF. 1995. The role of experience in the avoidance of darter alarm pheromone by fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Behaviour 132: 665-674. pdf

12. Chivers DP, Wisenden BD & Smith RJF. 1995. Predation risk influences reproductive behaviour of Iowa darters, Etheostoma exile (Osteichthyes, Percidae). Ethology 99: 278-285. pdf

11. Wisenden BD, Chivers DP, Brown GE & Smith RJF. 1995. The role of experience in risk assessment: avoidance of areas chemically labelled with fathead minnow alarm pheromone by conspecifics and heterospecifics. Ecoscience 2: 116-122. pdf

10. Wisenden BD. 1995. Reproductive behaviour in free-ranging convict cichlids. Environmental Biology of Fishes 43: 121-134. pdf        Video clip of female-female intrasexual competition

9. Wisenden BD, Lanfranconi-Izawa* TL & Keenleyside MHA. 1995. Fin digging and leaf lifting: examples of parental food provisioning by the cichlid fish Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum. Animal Behaviour 49: 623-639. pdf

8. Wisenden BD & Keenleyside MHA. 1995. Brood size and the economy of brood defence: testing Lack hypothesis in a biparental cichlid fish. Environmental Biology of Fishes 43: 145-151. pdf

7. Wisenden BD, Chivers DP & Smith RJF. 1994. Risk-sensitive habitat use by brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) in areas associated with minnow alarm pheromone. Journal of Chemical Ecology 20: 2975-2983. pdf

6. Wisenden BD. 1994. Factors affecting reproductive success of convict cichlids in Costa Rican streams. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72:2177-2185. pdf

5. Wisenden BD & Keenleyside MHA. 1994. The dilution effect and differential predation following brood adoption in free-ranging convict cichlids (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum). Ethology 96: 203-212. pdf

4. Wisenden BD. 1994. Factors affecting male mate desertion in the biparental cichlid fish (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum) in Costa Rica. Behavioral Ecology 5:439-447. pdf

3. Fraser* SA, Wisenden BD & Keenleyside MHA. 1993. Aggressive behaviour among convict cichlid (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum) fry of different sizes and its importance to brood adoption. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71:2358-2363. pdf

2. Wisenden BD. 1993. Female convict cichlids can adjust gonadal investment in current reproduction in response to relative risk of brood predation. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71:252-256. pdf

1. Wisenden BD & Keenleyside MHA. 1992. Intraspecific brood adoption in convict cichlids: a mutual benefit. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 31:263-269. pdf

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 84. Wisenden BD. 2019.